3 distinct Eras • Autocratic rule by tsars (14th century to 20th century) • 20th Century rule by Communist party (1917-1991) • Democracy and Free Markets (post-1991) What leads to the fall of each regime? What are the consequences of new policies?
Russia To Know • Political and Economic Liberalization • Process – Policies of Gorbachev, Yeltsin & Putin • Consequences • Problems associated with democratic consolidation • Look across eras – what carried through? • Compare to UK • Institutional arrangements and relationships • Civil society – parties, IG, and participation
Mother Russia East Meets West Democracy Meets Autocracy
1917 Tsar abdicates • February/ March Revolution • Provisional Govt • October/ November Revolution
1917 October/ November Revolution Lenin called for “all power to the soviets” after being granted safe passage by Germans Bolshevik coup d’etat Revolution is successful in the most cities It takes until 1924 to claim the entire country • The Great Proletarian Revolution? • Revolution: The overthrow and replacement of a regime based upon broad popular support.
KARL MARX’S THEORY History Revolution! MARXISM/ COMMUNISM: The theory that in a struggle over resources, the elite will dominate. Eventually the proletariat will create a classless state. Exploitation. CAPITALISM: Revolution! SOCIALISM: Dictatorship of the proletariat Evolves peacefully from socialism Def today: a state where the government provides for citizens’ basic needs, like pensions, medical care, and assistance to the poor. Transitional! Nationalize resources, egalitarian distribution of wealth COMMUNISM: • Classless society under which state wither away.
KARL MARX’S THEORY History of class struggle Marxist-Leninism • Vanguard of the Proletariat • Party ruled by democratic centralism • Socialist state needs to be strengthened rather than wither away CAPITALISM: Exploitation. Stalinism Totalitarianism: state attempts to exercise total control over all aspects of public and private life, through an integrated system of ideological, economic and political control. SOCIALISM: Dictatorship of the proletariat Def today: a state where the government provides for citizens’ basic needs, like pensions, medical care, and assistance to the poor. Transitional! • COMMUNISM: • Classless society under which state wither away.
Command v. Market Economy • COMMAD • Govt • Planners decide what, how and for whom • Central authority • MARKET • People in voluntary exchange • Consumers decide what to produce. Producers decide how • Market forces of supply and demand • Decisions made by • What to produce? • Prices set by
Soviet Union • Leninist State – Party completely controlled political life (democratic centralism) • Command Economy – government owned almost all industrial enterprises and retail sales outlets • Managed by Party-dominated state planning committee • Productivity and efficiency low because filling the quota was all that mattered
Way of Life • But… • Through your job • But not good • But state chose where you would work • Labor productivity low, wages set by govt • They provided • Essential needs • Healthcare free • Education top priority • 0 unemployment! • Retirement at 55-60
Gorbachev • 1985 – 1991 • Glasnost • Social / Political Openness • Perestroika • Economic Restructuring • Democratization • 1989
Yeltsin • 1991 – 2000 • Economic Liberalization through Shock Therapy
Vocab! • Economic Liberalization - A policy change that limits the power of the state, and increases the power of the private sector, over private property and market forces. • Privatization – selling off state-owned enterprises