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  1. id4tech S.Y. 2 0 1 1 – 2 0 1 2

  2. The Principles organizethe Visual Elements into a pleasing and comprehensibleWHOLE. This organization is calledComposition

  3. Basic Principles of Composition to shape –enclosing elements dimension Gravitational curves hierarchy I. CONTRAST -------- variety II. PROPORTION ---- relationship III. SCALE --------------- size magnitude IV. BALANCE ---------- equilibrium V. RHYTHM ------------ repetition VI. UNITY --------------- harmony VII. CHARACTER ---- expressiveness

  4. VARIETY Contrast in art and design occurs when two related elements are different

  5. VARIETY - Contrast of form SHAPE

  6. VARIETY - Contrast of form M A S S

  7. VARIETY - Contrast of Line Direction or Type

  8. VARIETY - Contrast in size

  9. VARIETY - Contrast of Tone Texture Openings Planes

  10. PROPORTION - Relationship • Proportion is largely a matter of relationship. It is evident by comparison which the eye makes between the size, shape, and tone of various objects or parts of composition.

  11. PROPORTION - Relationship • Proportion is largely a matter of relationship. It is evident by comparison which the eye makes between the size, shape, and tone of various objects or parts of composition.

  12. PROPORTION - Relationship Divine Proportion is also known as the Golden Mean, Golden Ratio and Golden Section .  It is a ratio or proportion defined by the number Phi (= 1.6180339887... )

  13. PROPORTION - Relationship The golden section, golden mean – a line that is divided such that the lesser portion is to the greater as the greater is to the whole.

  14. PROPORTION - Relationship

  15. PROPORTION - Relationship

  16. PROPORTIONS Anthropomorphic proportions - refers to the measurement of the human individual for the purposes of understanding human physical variation.

  17. PROPORTIONS-may be based on the following factors: • Natural Material Proportions • Manufactured Proportions • Mode of Construction or Structural Proportions • Requirements of the Program, Function or Government Ordinances • - the proportion of the height a room is controlled by local • building ordinances, logic and artistic sense. • - Auditorium proportions are influenced by the visual and • acoustical considerations. • - Proportions between heights and areas of rooms are • controlled by the capacity and lighting requirements of • the room. • 5. Tradition and General Accepted Taste

  18. PROPORTIONS Relative Proportion- deals with the relationship between the parts of an object and the whole.

  19. PROPORTIONS Absolute Proportion- deals with the relationship between the different parts of an object or the whole to the various parts

  20. SCALE- size - refers to how we perceive the size of the building element or space relative to other forms. Human Scale General Scale

  21. BALANCE- equilibrium Balance is concerned with the distribution of visual interest“Simply an equal distribution of weight.”

  22. BALANCE- equilibrium symmetrical balance -refers to an even distribution of visual weight on either side of an imaginary axis. The results look formal, organizedand orderly.

  23. BALANCE- equilibrium

  24. BALANCE- equilibrium Near Symmetry - two halves are not exactly the same. Slight variations will probably not change the balance but there is more potential for variety and hence more interest.

  25. BALANCE- equilibrium FORMAL

  26. BALANCE- equilibrium RADIAL

  27. BALANCE- equilibrium ASSYMETRICAL

  28. BALANCE- equilibrium GRAVITATIONAL OR PICTURESQUE

  29. RHYTHM- movement, repetition, spacing Unaccented rhythm – if equally spaced windows are introduced on the unbroken wall, then regular repetition is present

  30. RHYTHM- movement, repetition, spacing

  31. UNITY - hierarchy, harmony Unity is one of the goals of composition. It allows the viewer to see an integrated whole, rather than unrelated parts.

  32. UNITY - hierarchy, harmony repetition

  33. UNITY - hierarchy, harmony competition

  34. UNITY - hierarchy, harmony confusion

  35. UNITY - hierarchy, harmony • The unity of simple geometric forms is easy to understand. • They are elementary in their shapes, and no proportion of the whole tends to detach itself and to create new forms, or centers of interest. • Elementary geometric (shapes) FORMS are compact and direct; they tell a single story in the briefest possible manner.

  36. UNITY - hierarchy, harmony • The simplest kind of unity dealing with motifs of more than one member is to be found in ordinary repetition. • If this unity would be more emphatic and interesting, an accent may be introduced into the composition, so that a dominant note is added to the regularity of the repetition. • In other words, the highest type of unity is secured if there exists no doubt as to the presence of a central motif.

  37. UNITY - hierarchy, harmony • In architectural composition the elements must be arranged in such a way as to ensure the domination of the less important parts by the major masses of the building. • All the units should together form a compact and coherent ensemble.

  38. UNITY - hierarchy, harmony • Competition is one of the worst foes of unity. • In studying an architectural problem, the plan receives first consideration, and here it is too easily possible, but not desirable, to have the elements competing with each other for the place of importance. • However, the elements of an elevation are more quickly seen and understood than those of the plan.

  39. UNITY - hierarchy, harmony • Confusion exists because of the lack of similarity between the various elements employed to create a building. It is a case of unorganized competition and contrast. Dissimilarity is too pronounced.

  40. CHARACTER- expressiveness • Character grows out of the function of the building and the consideration of all the creative principles of composition. • It is something, which should be kept in mind during the entire process of design. • Throughout the development of a project the designers must ever strive to express the purpose of the building, both in general composition and the use of details. • Manifested character is the external expression of internal qualities. • In any architecture, which is worthy of the name, the exterior of a building expresses the internal function.

  41. CHARACTER- expressiveness • Character in architecture may be divided into three (3) types, depending upon the source of its inception and upon whether this source deals with the abstract or the concrete. The classes are CHARACTER from: • Function – or use of the building. • Association – or influence of traditional types • Personality – or the human quality or emotional appeal.

  42. CHARACTER- expressiveness • The most important kind of character in architecture is that, which results from the purpose of the building or the reason for its erection. The use of a structure naturally calls for a certain disposition of parts, and this arrangement affects the appearance of the exterior by which we largely judge character FUNCTION

  43. CHARACTER- expressiveness • A school building must containmany windows to admit the necessary side light and to offer an interesting contrast with the possible monotony of the class-room walls.

  44. CHARACTER- expressiveness • A museum must have galleries with ample wall space and top light, which eliminates windows and necessitates the use of skylights

  45. CHARACTER- expressiveness • A structure with large show windows is usually a shop for the display and sale of merchandise. • A factory expresses the efficient operation of the manufacturing within • A house reflects the informal intimacy of home life.

  46. CHARACTER- expressiveness • A structure with large show windows is usually a shop for the display and sale of merchandise. • A factory expresses the efficient operation of the manufacturing within • A house reflects the informal intimacy of home life.

  47. CHARACTER- expressiveness • This comes from the influence of ideas and impressions related to or growing out of the past experiences. • We have come to recognize buildings by features, which had long been associated with that particular structure.

  48. CHARACTER- expressiveness • This comes from the influence of ideas and impressions related to or growing out of the past experiences. • We have come to recognize buildings by features, which had long been associated with that particular structure.