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NK cells Interferons J. Ochotná

NK cells Interferons J. Ochotná

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NK cells Interferons J. Ochotná

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  1. NK cellsInterferonsJ. Ochotná

  2. NK cells Part of antigen non-specific mechanisms (innate) They do not have antigen-specific receptors Recognize cells that have abnormally low MHCgpI (some tumor and virus infected cells) They are able to kill quickly - without prior stimulation, proliferation and differentiation Activators of NK cells - IFNa, IFNb

  3. Receptors of NK cells • Activating receptors - Some surface lectins, Fc receptor CD16 ADCC (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity) NK cells recognize cell opsonized IgG antibody through the Fc receptor CD16, this leads to the activation of cytotoxic mechanisms (NK degranulation) • Inhibitory receptors - Signals provided through these receptors inhibit the cytotoxic mechanisms • Imunoglobulin family - KIR (killer inhibitor receptors) • C type lektin family - eg CD94/NKG2

  4. Cytotoxic mechanisms of NK cells • The resulting reaction of NK cell after meeting with another cell depends on which signal prevail, whether activating or inhibitory signals • Cytotoxic granules contain perforin and granzyme (perforin creates pores in the cytoplasmic membrane of target cells, in some cases may cause osmotic lysis of the target cell, formed pores in the cell receiving granzymes, that cause the target cell to die by apoptosis. • Fas ligand (FasL) - which binds to the apoptotic receptor Fas (CD95) presented on the surface of many different cells • TNFa

  5. Interferons • Belongs to the humoral component of non-specific mechanisms • IFNa - produced by virus infected lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages • IFNb - produced by virus-infected fibroblasts and epithelial cells • IFNa and IFNb - bind to receptors on the surface of infected and healthy cells and induce in them an antiviral state (synthesis of enzymes that block viral replication in the cell) • IFNg - produced by TH1 cells, has regulatory function, activates macrophages and stimulates the expression of MHCgp

  6. Basophils and mast cells and their importance in immune responses

  7. Mast cells • Mucosal mast cells - in the mucous membranes of respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, produce histamine, serotonin, heparin, tryptase, leukotriene C4 ..., participate in parasitosis and allergy • Connective tissue mast cells - the connective tissue, producing tryptase, chymase, prostaglandinD2 ..., are multiplicated in fibrosis, in parasitosis and allergy are not participating

  8. Functions of the mast cells • Defense against parasitic infections • In pathological circumstances, responsible for the early type of hypersensitivity (immunopathological reaction typeI) • Regulation of immune response • Apply during inflammation, in angiogenesis, in tissue remodeling • Involved in the maintenance of physiological functions of mucosal • Contribute to the normal metabolism of connective tissue • Communication between the immune and nervous system

  9. Activatio schema of the mast cell • Mast cells can be stimulated to degranulate by direct injury (opioids, alcohols, and certain antibiotics), cross-linking of IgE Fc receptors, or by anafylatoxins (C3a, C5a) • Establishing of multivalent antigen (multicellular parasite) to highaffinnity Fc receptor for IgE (FcRI) • Aggregation of several molecules FcRI • Initiate mast cell degranulation (cytoplasmic granules mergers with the surface membrane and release their contents) • Activation of arachidonic acid metabolism (leukotriene C4, prostaglandin D2) • Start of production of cytokines (TNF, TGF, IL-4, 5,6 ...) • After binding C3a or C5a to its receptor on mast cell (activate degranulation independent on IgE)

  10. Activation schema of mast cell

  11. Secretory products of mast cells • Cytoplasmatic granules: hydrolytic enzymes, proteoglycans (heparin, chondroitin sulphate), biogenic amines (histamine, serotonin) Histamine causes vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, erythema, edema, itching, contraction of bronchial smooth muscle, increases intestinal peristalsis, increased mucus secretion of mucosal glands in the respiratory tract and GIT (helps eliminate the parasite) • Arachidonic acid metabolites(leukotriene C4, prostaglandin D2) • Cytokines(TNF, TGF , IL-4, 5,6 ...)

  12. The role of mast cells in development of allergy

  13. Basophils • Differentiate from myeloid precursor • They are considered to be the circulating form of mast • Receptor equipment, containing granules, the mechanisms of stimulation and functions are very similar to mast cells • They are responsible for the emergence of anaphylactic shock

  14. HLA system (MHC glycoproteins)

  15. MHC glycoproteins class I (Major histocompatibility complex) • The function of MHCgpI is presentation of peptide fragments from inside the cell (which are produced by cell, including viral peptides if are present)on the cell surface so as to be recognized by T lymphocytes (cytotoxic CD8) • Present on all nuclear cells of the organism • 3 isotype classical human MHC gp.(HLA - A,-B,-C) • 3 isotype-classical MHC gp.(HLA - E,-F,-G; molecule CD1)

  16. Structure of MHC gp I • MHC gp class I consists of transmembrane chain a and non-covalently associated B2mikrotubulin • a chain has 3 domains, 2 N-terminal (a1, a2 - binding site for peptides) and 1 C-terminal domain (a3 - anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane, a structure similar to imunoglobulin domain) • Binding site for the peptide is structurally eminent groove whose bottom is made up of b structure and sides are bounded by 2 a helix • Binding of peptide is necessary for a stable conformation of MHCgp and thus ensure its long presentation on the cell surface

  17. Binding of peptides to MHCgpI • MHC gp I bind peptides with a length of 8 to 10 aminoacides • Certain MHC gp molecule binds peptides sharing common structural features - coupling motif (critical are aminoacides near the end of peptide) • The binding of endogenous peptides occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum during biosynthesis of MHC gp • After a string a and b2mikrotubulin create in the ER, folding into the correct conformation and the mutual association and the association of an appropriate peptide, the complex is further processed in the Golgi apparatus and then is presented on the cell surface • Linked peptides derived from proteins degraded proteasome, which cleaves cytoplasmic proteins for destruction (labeled with ubiquitin), peptide fragments are transported into the ER by specific membrane pump

  18. Non-classical MHC gpI • HLA - E,-F,-G; CD1 molecules • Structurally similar to classical MHC gp • Are less polymorphic • There are only on some cells • They specialize in binding of specific ligands

  19. HLA-E and HLA-G - occurs on the trophoblast cells • Complexes of HLA-E and HLA-G with peptides are recognized by inhibiting receptors of NK cells and contribute to the tolerance of the fetus in utero • CD1 molecules - bind glycolipids or other highly hydrophobic compounds, these complexes are recognized by specialized ab T lymphocytes (NK-T lymphocytes)

  20. MHC glycoproteins class II • The function of MHC gpII is the presentation of peptide fragments from protein whitch are ingested by cell on the cell surface so as to be recognized by T lymphocytes (auxiliary CD4) • Occur on the APC (dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, B lymphocytes) • 3 isotypes of MHC gpII (DR, DQ, DP)

  21. Structure of MHC gp II • MHC gp II consist of 2 non-covalently associated transmembrane subunits a and b • The peptide binding site consists of N-terminal domains a1 and b1 • Binding of peptide is necessary for a stable MHC gp conformation and thus ensure its long presentation on the cell surface

  22. Binding of peptides to MHC gp II • MHC gpII bind peptides with a length of 15 to 35 aminoacides (but possibly longer - because the peptide binding site is open at both ends) • Certain MHC gp molecule binds peptides sharing common structural features - coupling motif • After a string a and b are created in ER, fold into the correct conformation and the mutual associated are connected with another transmembrane chain called invariant chain, which blocks the binding site for the peptide, this complex is further processed in the Golgi apparatus, secretory vesicles isolated from GA merge with endosomes, then split the invariant chain and peptide fragments from cell absorbed proteins bind into binding site of MHC gp and the complex is then presented on cell surface

  23. Diagram of the biosynthesis of complex MHC gpII with peptides from ingested protein

  24. Polymorphism of MHC glycoproteins • HLA complex is located on chromosome 6 • For MHC gp is typical high polymorphism, there are up to hundreds of different forms of alelic isotypes (except the non-classical MHC gp, and DR a chain) • Codominant inheritance of alelic forms (Individual has 3 cell surface isotypes of HLA molecules (HLA-A,-B,-C) mostly in 2 different alelic forms) • Polymorphism has a protective significance at individual and population level • Ppolymorphism MHC gp causes complications in transplantation

  25. HLA typing = determmination of HLA antigens on the surface of lymphocytesCarry out during the testing before transplantation and in determination of paternity • 1) Serotyping • Microlymfocytotoxic test • Allospecific serums (obtained from multiple natal to 6 weeks after birth, obtained by vaccination of volunteers, or commercially prepared sets of typing serums (monoclonal antibodies)) • Principle - the incubation of lymphocytes with typing serums in the presence of rabbit complement, then is added the vital dye which stained dead cells - cells carrying a specific HLA are killed by cytotoxic Ab against the Ag, the percentage of dead cells is a measure of serum toxicity (forces and antileukocyte antibody titre) • Positive reaction is considered more than 10% dead cells (serological typing can be done also by flow cytometry

  26. 2) Molecular genetic methods • For typing are used hypervariable sections in the II. exon genes coding for HLA class II; to determine HLA class I is used polymorphism in II. and III. exon coding genes2a) PCR-SSP= Polymerase chain reaction with sequential specific primers • Extracted DNA is used as a substrate in a set of PCR reactions • Each PCR reaction contains primers pair specific for a certain allele (or group of alleles) • Positive and negative reactions are evaluated by electrophoresis, each combination of alleles has a specific electrophoretic painting

  27. 2b) PCR-SSO • PCR reaction with sequence-specific oligonucleotides Multiplication of hypervariable sections of genes coding HLA • Hybridization with enzyme or radiolabeled DNA probes specific for individual alleles 2c) PCR-SBT • Sequencing based typing • The most accurate method of HLA typing • We get the exact sequence of nucleotides, which compares with a database of known sequences of HLA alleles

  28. Immunoglobulins

  29. Structure of immunoglobulins • 2 heavy (H) chains covalently linked by disulfide bonds, each H chain is connected to a light (L) chain by disulfide bonds • H chain consists of 4 to 5 domains(1 variable, 3-4 constant) • L chain consists of 2 immunoglobulin domains (1 variable, 1 constant) • Types of L chains - k, l • Types of H chains - m, d, g (g1-4) and (a1, a2), e

  30. Variable domains of L and H chain form the binding site for Ag • Hinge region where the heavy chain linked by disulfide bonds • Immunoglobulins are glykoproteins (glycosilated Fc part) • J chain • Secretory component

  31. Antibody cleavage by papain Antibody cleavage by pepsin

  32. Functions of immunoglobulines • Neutralization of Ag • Agglutinate Ag • Complement activation (IgM, IgG) • Opsonization (IgA, IgG, IgE) • Activation of mast cells using IgE • ADCC

  33. Classes of immunoglobulins and their functions • Distinguished by the constant part of H chain toIgM, IgD, IgG (IgG1 - IgG4), IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgE • IgM - as a monomer form BCR - secreted as pentamer (10 binding sites) - first isotype that forms after the meeting with Ag - neutralization of Ag, activates complement, do not bind to Fc receptors on phagocytes - (concentration of 0.9 to 2.5 g / l; biol. half-life 6 days) • IgD - monomer form a BCR - in serum is in a very low concentration        - (0.1 g / l; biol. half-life 3 days)

  34. IgG - isotypes IgG1-IgG4 different ability of complement activation and binding to Fc receptors of phagocytes (opsonization)        - function: neutralization, opsonization, complement activation        - passes the placenta (passive imunization from the mother)        - formed in secondary immune response - (concentration of 8 to 18 g / l; biol. half-life of 21 days)

  35. IgA - mucosal IgA - protection of mucous membranes, neutralization, opsonization, do not activate complement - dimer, the secretory component - saliva, tears, breast milk - serum IgA - monomer, dimer or trimer - (Concentration of 0.9 to 3.5 g / l; biol. half-life of 6 days) • IgE - applies in defense against multicellular parasites - is the main cause of allergic reactions       - (concentration of 3x10-4 g / l; biol. half-life 2 days)

  36. The genetic basis for the development of immunoglobulin

  37. The genetic basis for the development of immunoglobulin • Gene segments for H chains – on chromosome 14 V (variable) - Several hundred D (Diversity) - about 50 J (joining)- 9 C constant domains of H chain • Gene segments for L chains - k on chromosome 2                                          - l on chromosome 22 V (variable) J (joining) C constant domain of L chain • At the ends of V, D, J segments that are signal sequences which are recognized enzyme VDJ recombinase that carry out the rearrangement of these genes • On the sides of C segments are so-called switch sequences, which are recognized by enzyme recombinase that carry out isotype switching

  38. The rearrangement of genes coding H chain 1) DJ rearrangement - excision a section IgH between D and J segment (runs on both chromosomes) 2) VD rearrangement - excision section between some V segment and DJ, if is rearrangement on some chromosome successfull, stops the regrouping on the second chromosome – it is called allelic exclusion (this is also true for L chain) Transcript of rearranged IgH gene into mRNA , splicing of the primary transcript. The first form H chain m. If rearrangement is unsuccessful, B lymphocyte die.

  39. The rearrangement of genes coding L chain 1) First, rearrange the genes encoding the L chain k, there is excision of sections between a V and J segment (simultaneously on both chromosomes), if the rearrangement is successful on one chromosomes, regrouping on the second chromosome stops – it is called allelic exclusion. 2) If regrouping of the k genes is unsuccessful, start the regrouping genes l. 3) Not all H and L chain can form together a stable dimmers. If regrouping unsuccessful, B lymphocyte die.

  40. Variability of immunoglobulins • Variability of immunoglobulins is determined by: 1)Diversity of the combination V(D) J segments2)Connecting variability - after excision of gene sequences the end are not cut off exactly 3)The enzyme terminal transferase - prolonge cut off ends with the short random sequences 4)Somatic mutationsof V segments of the rearranged genes after contact with Ag on the surface of FDC

  41. Isotype (class) switching • Occurs during the terminal differentiation of B lymphocyte after activation with Ag on the surface of FDC (require costimulating signal through CD40) • Enzymes recombinases recognize the switch sequences located on the sides of C segments (this sequence is not between Cm and Cd segments - B cell can produce before isotype class switching IgM and IgD simultaneously) and excise gene segments • After elimination of the C domain part is transcribed into mRNA that segment, which is the closest to VDJ segment and after splicing and translation arise correspondingisotype of the H chain

  42. Isotype switching

  43. Isotype switching • Cytokines regulate what isotype occurs: IL-4 stimulates switching to IgG1 and IgE, IgG4 TGFb stimulates switching to IgG2 and IgA • Regulation, whether it will be secreted or membrane form is at the level of mRNA (at 3´end of C segment are after the sequences encoding secreted form a sequences of membrane-form)

  44. Anti-idiotypic antibodies • IDIOTYP = summary of identicalbinding structures for Ag on antibodies the same specificity • Idiotypic structures of 1st generation antibodies can be recognized by some B lymphocytes as antigens and can form against them anti-idiotypic antibodies (2nd generation antibodies; some binding sites may remind Ag, which caused formation of 1st generation antibodies) • Against the 2nd generation antibodies formate 3rd generation antibodies (anti-antiidiotypic antibodies) • The idiotypic network may play a role in regulation of antibody response

  45. B lymphocytes

  46. B-lymphocytes • B-lymphocytes (B cells) are cells responsible especially for specific, antibody-mediated immune response. They also have great importance for the immune memory (which is used for vaccination). • B-cells recognize native antigen through BCR (B cell receptor) • B-lymphocyte whitch bind Ag through BCR are stimulated to proliferate and differentiate to effector plasma cells which produce large quantities of antibodies of the same specificity as the BCR (it is actually the same protein in soluble form). Part of stimulated B-cells differentiate to memory cells.