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Unit 3: Biochemistry & Plants

Unit 3: Biochemistry & Plants

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Unit 3: Biochemistry & Plants

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  1. Unit 3: Biochemistry & Plants

  2. Atoms & Elements • An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. An element is made of 1 type of Atom! • A compound consists of 2 or more elements that have been chemically combined. • All Organic compounds contain the element Carbon. Compounds that do NOT contain Carbon are called Inorganic compounds. c) Atom Structure • Nucleus = Protons & Neutrons • Outside of Nucleus = Electrons

  3. The mass number will change if the number of neutronschanges (called an Isotope). The atomic number does NOT change.

  4. IONS Lose Electron = Positively Charged Ion Gain Electron = Negatively Charged Ion

  5. Chemical Bonds Chemical Bonds are formed because of ELECTRONS. Covalent bonds SHAREelectrons & are very STRONG. Ionic bonds TRANSFERelectrons & are WEAKERbecause they form IONS. Hydrogen bonds are formed because of electrical CHARGESinstead of electrons. They are very WEAK.

  6. Isotopes Isotopes have different numbers of NEUTRONSbut the same number of PROTONSso the atomic MASS is different.

  7. pH is the measurement of ACIDITYbecause it measures the concentration of H+ions in the solution. The “lower” the pH, the higherthe concentration is of H+so the substance is a stronger ACID. The “higher” the pH, the lowerthe concentration is of OH-so the substance is a stronger BASE. At a pH of 7, the concentration of H+ and OH- ions is EQUAL, so the pH is NEUTRAL. 0-6 = Acid7 = Neutral8-14 = Base

  8. DECREASE by pH by 1 (make more ACIDIC)= multiply the number of H+ions by 10 (move decimal to right) and divide the number of OH-ions by 10 (move decimal to left). (do the opposite for increasing the pH)

  9. Compounds that contain Carbon are called ORGANIC Compounds that do NOT contain Carbon are called INORGANIC POLYMERS are made of MONOMERS

  10. Compounds that contain Carbon are called ORGANIC Compounds that do NOT contain Carbon are called INORGANIC POLYMERS are made of MONOMERS

  11. Muscle

  12. Monosaccharides = Simple Sugars (glucose & fructose) Disaccharides = 2 simple sugars joined together (sucrose & lactose) Polysaccharides = Starches; many simple sugars joined together Plant Starch = Cellulose Animal Starch = Glycogen

  13. Properties of Water Polarity = one side of the molecule is SLIGHTLY POSITIVEand the other side is SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE. H2O = The 2H are Positiveand O is Negative BECAUSE the electrons are NOT shared equally! Polarity creates ALL of the other properties of water!

  14. PROPERTIES OF WATER • Cohesion & Adhesion happen because of POLARITY. • Adhesion is when water molecules adhere (stick) to OTHER SUBSTANCES • Cohesion is when water molecules adhere (stick) to OTHER WATER MOLECULES • Cohesion & Adhesion both create SURFACE TENSION. They also contribute to CAPILLARY ACTION (allows water to CLIMB) AND IONIZATION (which contributes to water being the UNIVERSAL SOLVENT). • Pure water has a NEUTRALpH because there is the SAME concentration of H+ions as OH-ions.

  15. Surface Tension Properties of Water Adhesion & Universal Solvent Capillary Action Cohesion POLARITY!!!!

  16. Transpiration = Evaporation of Water From the Leaves of Plants


  18. Transpiration & Photosynthesis Photosynthesis happens in the LEAVES of PLANTS Transpiration carries water to the leaves so that Photosynthesis can happen.

  19. Photosynthesis Equation 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light C6H12O6+ 6O2 Photosynthesis 6) 3) 2) 5) 1) 4) 7)

  20. R Flower Structure Flowers are the Reproductive Organsof plants. The Stamencontains the “male” gametes (pollen). The Pistilcontains the “female” gametes (ovum)

  21. Leaf Structure Most Chloroplastsare in the leaves SO most of the Glucose& Oxygenare made in the leaves.