Roots • buried under the ground • help keeps plants from blowing away • helps keeps plants from being swept away by rainstorms
ROOT CAP Protects the tip of a root as it grows and moves through soil.
Tap roots are large, thick roots with fine roots called root hairs branching off them.
STEMS Carry water and minerals absorbed by roots to leaves and flowers.
Stems also carry sap, made by leaves, down to all parts of the plant.
Sap is the sugary food plants make to nourish themselves and stay alive.
Inside the stem are long bundles of tiny tubes which carry water and food.
One bundle, the xylem, carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. It also supports the great bulk of the plant.
The phloem bundles carry food (carbohydrates) from the leaves to the rest of the plant.
VEINS IN STEMS
Types of leaf shapes simple and compound
A compound leaf has several blades all attached to the same stem.
Identify the following leaves as: Simple or Compound A B C D E Simple Compound Compound Simple Simple
VEINS • carry water and mineral from root and stem to leaves • carry food that the leaves make to the rest of the plant
2 types of veins • Parallel veins run the same direction as the leaf. • Netted veins branch out at all angles to cover the entire leaf.
To make food from air, plants need the carbon dioxide that animals exhale.
Green plants have a special chemical in their leaves called chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll lets the plant use the energy from the sun shining on its leaves to make food out of carbon dioxide and water.
Plants and animals supply the requirements of life to each other.
Animals breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide, a gas poisonous to them.
Plants take carbon dioxide from the air, turn it back into oxygen, which it releases into the air.
Plants breathe through little microscopic holes on the bottom of the leaves.