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PLANTS PowerPoint Presentation

PLANTS

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PLANTS

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Presentation Transcript

  1. PLANTS

  2. What Are Plants • Multicellular Eukaryotes • Cell walls- cellulose • Develop from multicellular embryos • Carry out Photosynthesis using Chlorophyll a and b • Include: trees, shrubs, grasses, mosses, ferns

  3. Plant Life Cycle • 2 phases-mitosis and meiosis alternate to produce two types of cells • sporophyte -Diploid (2n)- spore producing plant • Gametophyte- Haploid (n)- gamete producing plant • Early plants(mosses/ferns) require water for reprod. • Later plants use seeds • Can be asexual or vegetative

  4. What Plants Need To Survive • Sunlight- energy for photosynthesis • Water + Minerals - photosynthesis • Gas Exchange- CO₂ for photosynthesis • Movement of Water/Nutrients- specialized tissue to move from roots to leaves • Xylem • phloem

  5. Early Plants • 1st plants evolved from – multicellular green algae (protist) • Similarities: • Photosynthesis • Color • Reproductive cycle • Cell walls • Pigments= chlorophyll • DNA sequences

  6. First Plants Mosses

  7. Mosses evolve to form vascular plants • Vascular tissue- conduct water/nutrient through plant • Ferns • Cone bearing plants (conifers) • Flowering plants(Angiosperms)

  8. Classification of Plants • Based on • Water conducting tissues • Seeds • Flowers

  9. Bryophyta • Depend on water for reproduction • Lack vascular tissue • Use osmosis to draw up water ( few cm) • Low growing • Live in moist/shaded areas • Types: Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts

  10. Mosses • Habitat: • areas with water • Poor soils • Harsh environments • Rhizoids-long thin cells, anchor to ground, absorb water

  11. Liverworts • Reproduce: sexually/asexually • Asexually- Gemmae- multicellularreprod. structures-produced in Gemmae cup

  12. Hornworts • Reproductive structure- tiny green horn

  13. Ferns/Relatives • Seedless vascular plants • Club mosses- Lycophyta • Horsetails-Equisetum • Ferns-pterophyta • Depend on water for reprod. Equisetum Lycophyta

  14. Ferns • Rhizomes-underground stems • Fronds- leaves

  15. Seed Plants • Gymnosperms- seeds directly on surface • Conifers and ancient palm like plants • Angiosperms- flowering plants- bear seeds within layers of tissue

  16. Reproduction- no water • Adaptations: • Flowers/cones • Pollen • Protection of embryos in seeds

  17. Cones/flowers- Gametophytes grow and mature in structures

  18. Pollen- male gametophyte • carried into female reprod. Structure by • wind • animal • insects

  19. Seed- embryo of plant encased in protective covering surrounded by food supply • Seed coat- surrounds/protects contents • Prevent drying out

  20. Specialized structure for dispersal • Textured to stick • Fleshy tissue to be eaten • Wind dispersal

  21. Gymnosperms • “Naked Seed” • Gnetophytes- Africa • Cycads- palm-like • Ginkgoes-1 species left • Conifers

  22. Ecology of Conifers • Developed needle shaped leaves with waxy coat to reduce the amount of moisture lost

  23. Angiosperms • “Enclosed seed” • Unique reproductive structures known as flowers • Attract bees, moths, hummingbirds for transport of pollen • Contain ovaries- surround and protect seeds-Ovary develops into fruit • Fruit-wall of tissue surrounding seed • Organisms eat fruit – spread seeds

  24. Monocots/Dicots Fibrous roots Dicots Taproot

  25. Woody/Herbaceous Plants • Woody-thick cell walls for support • Trees, shrubs, vines • Herbaceous-smooth, non-woody • Dandelions, zinnias, petunias

  26. Annuals/Biennials/Perennials • Life spans • Annuals- live one year • Biennials- complete life cycle in 2 years • Perennials- live for many years

  27. Venus Fly Trap Video