Migration, multiculturalism - a brief history of the mix Danny Dorling, London City Hall, 2 May 2006 cohesion: the state of cohering or sticking together Derek Beacon, 1993: “..once claimed that a local housing estate in East London, Masthouse Terrace, was almost entirely Asian, and a ‘no go areas’ for whites. When told that the Asian population was 28 per cent, he replied that this was more than half…” (Leech, 2005, p.95) Thanks to Bethan Thomas, Jan Rigby and researchers at SASI
Migration, multiculturalism This talk will look at the history of migration to Britain from 1841 to 2001 as documented by the censuses and for key areas of origin. It will address questions ranging from: "from where have we come?" to "why this many migrants now" and "what cultural mix are we"? It ends by asking – “so what do we do”?
Take a little time • To think outside of Britain • To think about the history of migration • To think about from where people come • To where they are going • Gross flows then net • Around the globe • What does the world of Immigration look like?
www.worldmapper.org People not living in their country of birth
www.worldmapper.org • Where people born abroad were born
www.worldmapper.org Net immigration – who gains how many?
www.worldmapper.org Net emmigration – who has lost how many?
“why this many migrants now?” • Think back to Britain • It is not just that more folk are moving round the world – it is not that easy to move around. • Not all places are equal • Some choose to allow more in • And are then disingenuous about their choices. They are disingenuous perhaps when they do not understand what they are doing – or the markets of human supply and demand they create.
The last law of Migration… Does immigration occur predictably? • "It was a remark of the late Dr. William Farr, to the effect that migration appeared to go on without any definite law, which first directed my attention to [the] subject...." (Ravenstein 1885:JRSS p.167-235).
Annual Births and Net Emigration, England and Wales, 1840-2000 Numbers of births are scaled shown by the left vertical axis, and net migration by the right-hand vertical axis - labelled emigration as the balance is shown as positive when out-migration is higher than in-migration.
Annual Births and Net Cohort Emigration, England and Wales, 1840-2000 net cohort migration, labelled here emigrants, has not been measured over the course of a single year but over the course of the lifetimes of the people born in each year. Net cohort migration is most simply calculated by subtracting from births in an area in a year the number of deaths recorded in that area of people born in that particular year over the subsequent century.
Births (in) by net-cohort-emigration (from), England and Wales 1840-1975 Emigrants less immigrants of those born in each year (cohort lifetime statistics, and estimates 1901 onwards) Births in each year (numbers)
"what cultural mix are we"? • How could there be “dangerous concentrations” of groups of immigrants living in Britain wielding threats and power, clustered together? • Is national culture being eroded? • Start with the census and With children…
Immigration (children) • “Foreign born” children in the majority in Buckley, Connah's Quay and Rural Montgomeryshire . • More than one in seven infants born abroad in Chelsea, Hyde Park, Kensington, Mildenhall, and Walton. • Outside of Britain the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th most popular countries of origin for children are Pakistan, South Africa, India and Bangladesh. • The 7th to 13th: France, Australia, Northern Ireland, Ireland, Hong Kong, Nigeria and Japan. • The 1st and 2nd are Germany and the United States of America.
Segregation, innumeracy and malice • Around April Fool’s day, 2006 a small group released a story to the media in Britain claiming that a poll they had commissioned from the polling organisation “YouGov” showed that “73% agreed (35% strongly) that Britain was becoming increasingly segregated…”. • The “question” that had been asked of the twenty hundred internet surfers that YouGov pay for their views was: • “I am concerned that British society is becoming increasingly racially segregated” • Strongly agree, Agree, Neither agree nor disagree, Disagree, Strongly disagree • Although the YouGov “question” is not a question, and it is leading, it is worth asking how, if this poll is in any way valid, almost three quarters of the population came to believe this to be the case?
The rate of people reported as being least concerned in the YouGov survey was lowest amongst women, amongst people aged under 30 and, in England, lowest in London. Women and young people tend to be better educated - especially those aged under thirty living in London. The easiest example I have to understand the numbers is this: • The example is of two time periods, two areas and two groups. The numbers are of people: • 1980s White Black • North 98 2 • South 96 4 • 1990s White Black • North 96 4 • South 92 8 • You have two hundred people, almost all of whom are white living in two places at two points in time. There were three black couples in the 1980s. One couple lives in the North, the other two in the South. Over ten years all three couples have two children each. They label their children black in the census like themselves. There are now 12 black people in the country rather than six. Meanwhile the aging White population, on aggregate, declines - conveniently in such a way that the maths is made easy. The traditional index of segregation remains stable for the Black group. At both points in time one in six of the black folk would have to move area (from south to north) to be evenly distributed. However the index of isolation doubles for the same Black group (and the very high index of isolation for the White group falls ever so slightly as is in case in with the UK).
““so what do we do”?” • Study more as what you find is surprising. • Send Messages (Lancashire council) • Look for what is really going wrong (wealthy inequalities, opportunity inequalities, fairness, hope, dignity). • & Check the National Curriculum
Sending messages (on the A687) “you are leaving north Yorkshire” Welcome to Lancashire: a place where everyone matters
Cohesion: the future “Pop out these cards and keep them ready to hand out. Your child will thank you, as will those you hand them to … send a cheque to mummy and daddy” www.postoffice.co.uk/savings
Citizenship – The end…. The Edexcel GCSE short course in Citizenship Studies is based on the key stage 4 citizenship programme of study in the National Curriculum. The teaching of citizenship at key stage 4 in England is statutory from September 2002, for first examination in June 2003. http://www.edexcel.org.uk/quals/gcse/citizenship/sc/3280