Short and Sweet:Elements of a Short Story 7th Grade: Fall 2009
Why lift your head up off your desk and listen up? I’ll tell you why… • After today you will: • *Be an expert on all the literary elements involved in a short story. • *Relate elements (some old and some new) to the stories we have read and your favorite childhood stories. • *Refresh your love for READING (I promise…)
Prose: • Refers to the type of writing that appears in stories (both short stories and novels) • Ordinary form of written language as opposed to poetry. Poetry vs. Prose
Pointing at the PLOT: • The sequence of events occurring because of a problem or a conflict. • Each event results from a previous one and causes the next. Don’t get confused with the setting. Setting refers to time, location and circumstance of a story! Think about “the domino effect”… Consequently, when one domino falls, it causes others to fall.
Examining the EXPOSITION: • Also called the introduction—gives necessary background information • Introduces the setting, characters, and basic situation
Raising the Roof with…RISING ACTION: • Series of events that increase tension and/or suspense • Internal/external conflicts are added to lead toward climax
Choking on Popcorn at…THE CLIMAX: • The turning point or high point • Moment of greatest tension/ intensity • Outcome of the plot “hangs” in the balance “OMG!!”
Free Falling….THE FALLING ACTION: • Event(s) following the climax that may answer questions presented during the rising action and lead to the resolution
Reflecting on theRESOLUTION: • The conclusion • The outcome of the conflict in a plot which may reveal character development and theme • Reader’s questions may be answered
CONFLICT: “No, no, no, no… don’t mess with my heart…” • The struggle between two opposing forces • Causes the action of a story
Conflict: Internal vs. External External Conflict: a struggle against an outside force • Man vs. Man • Man vs. Nature • Man vs. Society
Conflict: Internal vs. External I don’t know who I am… What should I do with life? AHHHH! • Internal Conflict: a struggle within a character • Man vs. Self
Characterization: We are all our unique own character, thanks to the writer of our show!! • The act or techniques used to create or develop characters in the story. PROTAGONIST: Central character around which conflict revolves. ANTAGONIST: character in conflict with central character
Fallin’ on the FLAT… • Flat Characters: • One sided, often stereotypical. • Simple to understand; often lacking creativity
Rockin’ with the ROUND. • Round Characters: • Complex & multidimensional • Fully developed and exhibits many traits (both flaws and virtues)
Simply Static. I’m waiting for my true love’s kiss…the ENTIRE MOVIE. • Static Characters: • Do not change throughout the entire story.
Getting Down with the Dynamic. • Dynamic Characters: • Undergoes important changes throughout the story - Personality, attitude or maturity changes
Character MOTIVATION: • Provides a reason that explains the character’s thoughts, feelings, actions, or speech. “What makes the character tick? I’m gonna figure it out!”
Pointing at the Point of View: • The perspective or vantage point from which the story is told.
Feeling it First Hand. • First Person P.O.V.: • A character involved in the story tells it (I, me) • The reader sees it through this person’s eyes as he/she experiences it and only knows only what he/she feels I’m Ponyboy, the central character of this story. This is my story…
Wait for Second. • Second Person P.O.V.: • Anything written from the perspective of you (e.g., recipes, instructions, self-help books). • This is not very common in literature.
Third Times a Charm. • Third Person P.O.V.: Third Person Omniscient: This is the “all knowing” narrator who knows everyone’s thoughts and feelings. Third Person Limited: The narrator shares the inner thoughts and feelings of only one character Third Person Objective: The narrator tells the story without detailing any of the character’s thoughts. This is the “fly on the wall” perspective. (Often used in newspaper articles).
Isn’t it Ironic….Don’t You Think? “It’s a traffic jam, when you’re already late. A no smoking sign on your cigarette break.” • Irony: • A contrast between appearance and reality. • A situation that is opposite from what is expected. Meet Timmy Treadwell…he loved bears and spent summers in Alaska with them. Ironically, he was mauled and eaten by a bear.
I got a feeling that this term is going be a good term to know…FORESHADOWING: • Foreshadowing • Clues hinting at what will happen later
Flashback to something important: • Flashback: -A technique that allows a writer to present past events during current events, in order to provide background for the current narration.
Staring at the Symbol • Symbol: • A person, place or thing that stands for something beyond itself
Thinking about theTheme • Theme: • The message or insight about life or human nature, a “significant truth” to be learned “You need to know what it has been like to be ME!”
You should now have complete Cornell notes on “The Elements of a Short Story”Hang on to your notes until I am well enough to come back to school.~Mrs. Andujar