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Discovery Geo Workshops GIS & Mapping of relevant data

Discovery Geo Workshops GIS & Mapping of relevant data. AGH UST Kraków 26 November 2013. Workshops schedule. GIS – what is it?. GIS – G eographical I nformation S ystems

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Discovery Geo Workshops GIS & Mapping of relevant data

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  1. Discovery Geo WorkshopsGIS & Mapping of relevant data AGH UST Kraków 26 November 2013

  2. Workshops schedule

  3. GIS – what is it? • GIS – Geographical Information Systems • Methods of (computer hardware & software based) capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information

  4. DATA GIS – what is it? + LOCATION & RELATIONS „geographically referenced information”...geo - what?

  5. „geographically referenced information”... GIS – what is it? Object Location + Attributes Y X

  6. GIS – what is it? • What? = attribute (TD, year...) • Where? = location (X,Y,φ,λ) • Relation = query (radius, buffer zone...)

  7. Types of data • Numeric data

  8. Types of data Location (X,Y)+attributes • Vector data • Points (wells, shotpoints, outcrops...) • Lines (seismic lines, roads, rivers...) • Polygons (license borders, oilfields boundaries...) • Files formats: .shp, .dxf, .tab, .kml... Location (each line node X,Y) + attributes Location (each polygon node X,Y) + attributes

  9. Types of data • Raster data • Images(scanned images, photos) .jpg,.tiff,.bmp... Each pixel has value->color value RGB 0-255 ex.(X,Y,123) Every raster image has to be georeferenced!

  10. Types of data Each pixel has value ->depth, height, other... ex.(X,Y,188 meters asl) Usually already georeferenced data • Raster data • Grids(surfaces, SRTM images...), .grd, .hrt, .dem...

  11. Georeferencing Coordinates of the image have to become project coordinates Ex. Image (X,Y)->Project (x,y,) Image (0,0) -> -> Project (50°20’04”, 21°34’21”) • Every element of your project has to be in the same coordinate system Georeferenced images extensions: .GEOTIFF, .JPGW

  12. Types of data - summary Vector Real World Raster y x

  13. Coordinates systems, projections • Coordinate system is defined by: • Measurement framework (Earth center or Earth surface) • Measurement unit (meters, degrees) • Other properties (projection, datum, spheroid of reference) • Coordinates systems • Geographic Projected (unit:angle, Sphere) (unit:meters, how to make Earth flat again)

  14. Coordinates systems, projections • Geographical coordinates systems • Geoid – representation of the Earth’s gravity field (sea level) • Spheroid,Elipsoid – model of Earth’s shape (WGS84, GRS80,NAD83) • Datum (geocentric/local) – frame of reference for measuring position • Location is represented by φ/λ

  15. Coordinates systems, projections PUWG 1992 national cartesian coordinate system Gauss-Kruger projection (cylindrical) of the GRS80 elipsoid in the 10° zone Datum: 19°E Meridian • Projected coordinates systems • 3D to 2D conversion

  16. What can a GIS do? • Data Acquisition • Data Processing, Querying & Analysis • Data Display & Output

  17. Data acquisition DIGITIZING • Every kind of data can be loaded (and exported from) into GIS project

  18. Data Processing, Querying & Analysis • Numeric data • Building queries • Sorting • Filtering • Building equations • Adding/removing • Vector data • Buliding buffers • Aggregging • Merging • Transforming... • Building spatial queries • Raster data • Transformations, Manipulations, Maths • Terrain analysis (slope, aspect...) • Aerial photos analysis

  19. Data display and output Usually the final result is classic map From GIS point of view: combination of many raster and vector layers

  20. GIS applications in oil business • Building your database • Visualization of the archival data • Planning field works • Visualization of new data • Solving environmental issues • Preparing the documentation • Making decisions GIS has aplication in all stages of exploration process

  21. GIS applications in oil business • GIS in exploration process • Problem: exploration license location • Real World Data: archival data, new acquired data (Ro,TOC) • Data acquisition: digitizing, loading the data • Processing: sorting the data, formatting • Data management: building a database • Manipulation and analysis: mapping of relevant data, building queries • Product generation: maps • Decision making: preparing documentation

  22. GIS software • All geo-software now is a GIS software: • Commercial: ArcGIS, MapInfo, Microstation, AutoCAD, Geographix... • Open-source: Quantum GIS, gvSIG, SAGA GIS...

  23. GIS software Objects manipulation tools Main map window Adding layers Layers Coordinates & CS

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