Exploration and Colonization of Georgia Unit 2 SSH81b,c, SSH2a-c, SSG1d, SSE1, SSE2a
Age of Exploration • 1492-Columbus sailed west to get to the Indies in the east. He was looking for a shorter route; Muslim traders controlled the existing land and water routes. • Europeans were dependent upon the Indies for spices, silk, tea, and gems. • Columbus explored San Salvador in the Caribbean Islands, but he was convinced that he had found the Indies. He never found any treasure. • 1507 – New World named America after Amerigo Vespucci by a Swiss map maker.
Spanish Claims in the New World • After Columbus, Spain and Portugal both became very interested in the New World; Portugal feared that Spain would threaten their shipping lanes to Africa. • 1493 - Pope Alexander VI created the “Line of Demarcation” dividing the Spanish and Portuguese interests. • 1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas moved the line 700 miles west, protecting the Portuguese shipping lanes, but only leaving them one territory - Brazil
Division of the New World 1493 – dotted line – “Line of Demarcation” 1494 – solid line – “Treaty of Tordesillas”
English Claims in the New World • 1497 & 1498 – John Cabot sails almost the entire east coast of present day United States; as far north as Canada and as far south as Florida. • England ignored the Pope’s decrees and the Treaty of Tordesillas ; could not agree with Spain on who actually had rights to New World • Finally agreed that explorers must colonize an area for it to belong to the country.
Spain comes to the Southeast • 1513 - Ponce de Leon landed on Florida thinking it was a large island; called it Isla Florida, “Island of Flowers” • Actually had landed near the future site of St. Augustine • 1521 – Ponce de Leon returned to colonize the area, but was met with resistance from hostile Indians and killed.
First European Settlement in North America • Spain continued sending Conquistadors - people sent to explore and conquer the Native population • 1526 – Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon given permission to conquer and colonize La Florida for Spain; left in July with 600 Spanish settlers • Landed on the Carolina coast in August hoping to find Indians to help them out; when they found none, they sailed to a place in Georgia now called Port Royal. • Ayllon died 10 days later from disease; most of his settlers either died from disease, exposure or Indian attack. Only 150 returned to Hispaniola alive.
Hernando de Soto Explores Georgia • 1540 – landed in Tallahassee and made their way into Georgia where they encountered chiefdoms of the Mississippian period. • Food was in short supply – seized food from the Indians; in 4 years, found virtually no silver or gold. • Most of the expedition died from disease, exposure, or Indian attacks.
Changes for the Indians in Georgia • Most Natives had never seen guns, steel swords, or metal armor that came with the Conquistadors; their stone, wood, and bone weapons were no match. • Many were killed in battle or forced into slavery; 1/3 of the population was killed by small pox. Entire villages were abandoned. • So many of the Indians were killed that the Spanish began importing Africans as slaves.
French Claims in the Southeast • 1524 – Giovanni de Verrazano – sailed west to go east like Columbus, came ashore @ Carolina, possibly even as far south as Georgia then sailed north to Nova Scotia, Canada • 1562 – Jean Ribault – brought 150 Huguenots to an area just north of present day Savannah; built Charles Fort, the first European fort in N. America • 1564 – another group of Huguenots landed at the mouth of the St. John’s River in FL; built Ft. Caroline
Spanish Outrage • Spanish were outraged with Huguenots for building on their lands and raiding Spanish ships. • 1565 – Pedro Menendez sailed from Spain to drive out the French in FL; captured Ft. Caroline and executed the Huguenot defenders. • Menendez then founded St. Augustine, FL which became the first successful settlement in N. America; important military and political base
Spanish Missions in Georgia • For the purpose of missionary work, Georgia’s coast divided in half • Guale – northern half between the Savannah and Altahama Rivers • Mocama – southern half between the Altamaha and St. Mary’s Rivers • Many friars lost their lives in Indian uprisings – Juanillo uprising
England Comes to North America • 1604 – Spain and England signed a treaty allowing England to begin colonizing lands in N. America • Used Cabot’s voyages of 1497 and 1498 as basis for claims in the New World. • 1606 – King James I issued a charter to the Virginia Company to create a colony • 1607 – James Town on the James River became the first English settlement in N. America
England Comes to N. America cont’d • English had many reasons for wanting to colonize: • Wanted to keep up with other countries for power and glory • Mercantilism – colonies sold raw materials to England to make finished goods; colonies had to buy all finished goods from England • Virginia colony proved that mercantilism could work by growing tobacco and exporting it to England
England Comes to N. America cont’d • Trading companies played a major role in colonizing; upper class British did as well – they believed England was overrun with poor, homeless and unemployed people • Some groups sought religious freedom in the colonies • Puritans spoke out against the Church of England wanted to make reforms. • Separatists spoke out against the Church of England but wanted to form an entirely new church
Types of Colonies • Corporate colony: king gave a land grant to corporations for form colonies; most often were joint-stock companies – companies sold stock to raise money for the colony and gave a portion of the profits back to the investors • Proprietary colony: king granted a charter giving one person or group of people ownership of a colony; the owner of the colony had full rights to government and land distribution • Royal colony: colony operated directly by the English gov’t; none started out this way, but many ended this way
England Creates Carolina • 1663 – King Charles II issued a charter for Carolina – eventually broken into North and South Carolina • 36 parallel was northern border; 31 parallel was southern border; 2 years later, the southern border was changed to 29 parallel • 1670 – Charles Town(Charleston) became the basis for the English trying to control Guale and Mocama • Carolina began trading with Indians along the Savannah River; also began arming Yamasee Indians with guns to capture Indian slaves.
A New Colony on the Savannah River • 1717 – First proposal to colonize south of the Savannah River by Robert Montgomery – would call it Azilia and produce wine, silk, and other products for England; plans were postponed • 1720 – John Barnwell wanted Britain to build a series of forts along the south and west of Carolina’s frontier; construction on the garrison began in 1721, but it was abandoned in 1727 due to sickness and death • James Oglethorpe, known for prison reform, convinced King George II to approve a debtor’s colony that would become Georgia
James Oglethorpe • Elected to Parliament @ age 25 • Became a proponent of prison reform in 1720s, particularly because debtors were being thrown in jail for not being able to pay their debts • Asked King George II for a land grant to create the colony of Georgia for debtors to begin again.
Georgia is Created • Charter granted on June 20, 1732 • Georgia had 3 purposes: • Charity – to relieve poverty and unemployment • Economics – participate in mercantilism; grow mulberry trees to produce silk • Defense – serve as a buffer between South Carolina and the Spanish • Religion was a fourth, unstated reason for the charter; did not impose an official religion, but Catholics were not allowed because they might sympathize Spain
Georgia’s boundaries • Savannah river original northern border • Altamaha river original southern border • The Pacific Ocean, on paper, was the western border • Borders protested by the French and Spanish, but they could not challenge British • See picture page 80 in your textbook!
Georgia as a Trustee Colony • King George II granted the charter making it a trustee colony for 21 years; Oglethorpe and 20 other British gentlemen were named Trustees • The trustees were responsible for managing the colony, but there were restrictions on them so they could not profit from their position • The trustees were not able to: • Own land • Hold public office • Be given money for work • Pass laws without the consent of the king
Georgia as a Trustee Colony cont’d • First task of the trustees was to raise money for passage, food, and tools for the colonists; advertised in newspapers, speeches, and pamphlets to raise $ • Next, they looked for hardworking people who were down on their luck AND has the skills to make the colony successful • 35 families were chosen, none of which had been in prison for their debts; were given food, land, and tools, but had to do ALL THE WORK
Trustees restrictions • No Catholics, blacks, liquor dealers, or lawyers allowed. • Colonists were promised 50 acres and 1 year supply of food; colonists paying their own way got 500 acres and 10 indentured servants • Colonists had to agree to the following: • Each man had to defend the colony • Land could not be sold or $ be borrowed on it • Had to farm land with seeds • Had to grow mulberry trees for silk • Had to obey all trustees rules and regulations
Arrival in Georgia • Left for Georgia on November 17, 1732 on the ship Ann; had to make peace with the Yamacraw Indians before it could anchor • Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw, allowed the colonists to settle on Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River • Oglethorpe quickly began laying out the city of Savannah; Noble Jones surveyed and helped layout the city. Savannah became the first planned city in America
Life in the New Colony • Each settler had to care for their house, 5 acres @ the edge of town, and 45 farm acres in the country. • The first year, 1 in 4 colonists died from diseases from the drinking water; once the town well was dug, population began to recover. • Colonists were not happy; it was hot is the summer and there were heavy rains.
Life in the New Colony cont’d • Particularly upset by 3 of the trustees regulations: • Land ownership and inheritance • Slaves • Rum and liquor • Trustees wanted to prevent a rich, land owning class; if a land owner left the colony, the land went back to the trustees. • Women were not allowed to inherit land; if there were no male heir to protect the land, it went back to the trustees • Slaves and rum were allowed in every other colony but Georgia; colonists claimed it unfair.
Salzburgers come to Georgia • Salzburgers, a group of German protestants, came to Georgia seeking religious freedom from Austria • Oglethorpe orginally gave them 25 miles @ Ebenezer, but the land was poor; eventually moved them to Red Bluff named New Ebenezer • John Martin Boltzius – leader of the Salzburg church; very strict rules • John Adam Treulten – Salzburger who became the first Governor of Georgia
Protecting the Colony • 1734- Oglethorpe returned to England with Tomochichi to brief the trustees on the progress of the colony; asked for $ from the government to build forts • 150 Highland Scots came to build forts on the southern border of the colony; settled @ Darien • 1735 – Oglethorpe returned to Georgia with 257 more colonists to build the 2nd fort @ St. Simon’s Island • Upset the Spanish by building forts @ the St. John’s River
Trade Regulations with Indians • British gov’t also charged Oglethorpe with keeping friendly relationship with the Indians by trading • Also some traders began to trade rum to the Indians which worried Oglethorpe; built Ft. Augusta to better regulate trade • Oglethorpe created 3 regulations on trade: • Set a fair rate for goods • Register and pay a fee • Follow all stated rules and regulations
War with Spain • 1736 – Oglethorpe returns to England to plead for soldiers and $ to defend the colony • 1737 – Oglethorpe becomes a Colonel and sent 600 soldiers to Georgia • 1739 – England declares war with Spain; England only has two victories • Ft. Diego • Ft. Mose – home of the Black Militia
Battle of Bloody Marsh • June 1742 – Spanish brought a large # of soldiers to the coast of St. Simon’s Island; attacked within a mile of Ft. Frederica • Oglethorpe assembled a small army to hide in the woods - Battle of Bloody Marsh – Spanish were forced back again • After battle, Oglethorpe promoted to General and left for England never to return to Georgia; disappointed by how the trustees handled the colony after he left
Colony declines • After Oglethorpe left, many colonists returned to England or went to other colonies. • Export business was bad due to crop failures and discontent over prohibition on slavery • Trustees relaxed their rules on land inheritance and slavery • 1750 – allowed colonist to elect delegates to handle local affairs
Georgia becomes a Royal Colony • 1752 – trustees turn the colony over to the British gov’t making it a royal colony • 17547 – John Reynolds became first Royal Governor • Georgia would now have it’s own legislature with an upper house appointed by the governor • People would elect the lower house: • White males with at least 500 acres eligible • Laws made by Assembly could be vetoed by king or royal gov.
Georgia becomes a Royal Colony cont’d • Reynolds replaced by Henry Ellis after 2 years • 1758 – Assembly declared Anglican church the official church; divided Georgia into 8 parishes – Georgia’s first counties • Parishes voted for churchwardens and paid taxes to the church • James Wright replaced Ellis as the 3rd and final royal governor of Georgia
French and Indian War and Proclamation of 1763 • Fighting well to the north of Georgia; Treaty of Paris 1763 demanded that France and Spain cede large portions of land to Britain • Georgia’s western border moved from Pacific Ocean to Mississippi River • Proclamation of 1763 – King George III ordered creation of Quebec, Grenada, East Florida, and West Florida – reserved all lands west of the Appalachians for Indians
Colony Prospers • After the war, the Creeks ceded 2 million acres to Georgia – quickly began surveying the land for pioneers • Decided to use headright system to distribute land: • Head of family had right to 100 acres • Plus 50 acres per additional family member, servant, and slave • Family paid recording fees
Slavery in Georgia • 1738 – Malcontents – group of people who disagreed with trustees slavery policies – petitioned to be allowed to have slaves. • 1739 – Highland Scots asked trustees to keep their no slaves policy because they felt it would take away white settlers will to work • 1750 – trustees relented and allowed slaves; by 1773 almost ½ of the colonies population were slaves
Slave codes 1770 • Children of slaves were to remain slaves • Slaves could not travel outside town or plantation limits without a ticket signed by owner • If a slave struck a white person slave would be severely punished; second offense would be death • Any person making a slave work on Sunday would be fined 10 shillings • Anyone teaching a slave to read or write would be fined 20 pounds
Life in the Colony • Strict social order with plantation owners and merchants at the top and slaves at the bottom • No education system – children were education by their parents; boys would be taught the family business, girls taught to manage a home • Anglican church was the official church, but other religions include Jewish people were allowed; No Catholics. • John and Charles Wesley created the Methodist church; all Georgians paid taxes to the Anglican Church but could worship where they chose