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Cooking Vegetables and Fruits

Cooking Vegetables and Fruits

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Cooking Vegetables and Fruits

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  1. Cooking Vegetables and Fruits FACS Standards 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.3, 8.5.4, 8.5.5, 8.5.6, 8.5.7 Kowtaluk, Helen and Orphanos Kopan, Alice. Food For Today. McGraw Hill-Glencoe. 2004.

  2. Effects of cooking on vegetables and fruits • To minimize nutrient loss, leave produce in large pieces of whole • Cook quickly for little time – steaming, simmering, microwaving • Serve with cooking liquid when possible

  3. Sensory Changes in Cooked Produce • Texture – softens cell walls; become more tender; easier to digest; overcooked become mushy • Color – retain pleasing colors; overcooked green vegetables become unpleasant olive green

  4. Flavor – heating releases flavor; fruit flavors mellow and taste less acid; overcooked lose their flavor and develop unpleasant flavor

  5. Cooking Fresh Vegetables • Several methods • Timing and method depend on tenderness of vegetable and size of pieces

  6. Steaming Vegetables • One of most healthful; fewer nutrients lost; takes longer than other methods

  7. Simmering Vegetables • Do not use aluminum or copper pots – these minerals react with sulfur compounds, resulting in loss of vitamin C, folic acid, and vitamin E; create unpleasant odor and flavors • ½ cup water for every 4 servings of vegetables

  8. Microwaving Vegetables • lose few nutrients; retain color, texture, and flavor

  9. Baking Vegetables • High moisture vegetables can bake in dry heat • Squash usually cut in half and baked; potatoes baked with skins on; pared vegetables can cooked in same pan with roast

  10. Frying Vegetables • sautéing brings out flavor of vegetables • Stir-frying and deep-fat frying other popular methods • Except for potatoes, most vegetables are coated before deep-frying

  11. Cooking Fresh Fruits • Nice alternative to add variety to food choices • Cooked fruits can be served hot or cold • May be part of main course, dessert, or a snack • Poached, fruit sauce, baking, microwaving

  12. Poaching Fruits • Goal – retain shape of fruit while cooking • Plums, berries, apples, pears • Sugar added at beginning of process – sweetens, but helps fruit keep its shape by strengthening cell walls

  13. Lemon or orange juice, cinnamon stick, vanilla – ways to add flavor • Simmer, uncovered until fruit is tender

  14. Fruit Sauces • Applesauce, peach sauce, plum sauce, pear sauce • Cook fruit in liquid to break down cell walls; sweeten near end of process with honey, sugar, syrup; spices and other flavorings may be added as desired

  15. Baking Fruits • Avoid overbaking • Use whole firm fruits – apples most popular • Core and cut a think strip around middle of fruit; fill cavity with cinnamon or nutmeg and raisins; set fruit in baking dish with hot water surrounding fruit to a depth of ¼ inch; Bake at 3500 F for 45-60 minutes

  16. Microwaving Fruits • Easy to prepare, quick to cook, and keep fresh flavor and shape; watch time, can easily overcook • Cover with small opening for steam to escape, pierce if cooking whole fruit to keep from bursting