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Developing Possible Selves and Enhancing Student Motivation Michael F. Hock, Ph.D.

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Developing Possible Selves and Enhancing Student Motivation Michael F. Hock, Ph.D.

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  1. Developing Possible Selves and Enhancing Student MotivationMichael F. Hock, Ph.D. 2006 The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Lawrence, Kansas

  2. Advance Organizer • Introduction & Purpose • The Challenge • A “Possible Selves” Solution • Planning for Implementation University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  3. The Challenge • Is student motivation a factor in student achievement? • What are the student motivational issues that teachers face? • What are the parameters we must operate under next fall? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  4. “Give me a fish, and I eat for a day. Teach me to fish, and I eat for a lifetime.” —Chinese Proverb University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  5. “I don’t know how to fish, and I don’t care to learn. I don’t even like fish. So don’t bother me!” —“Non-Motivated” Student University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  6. Unmotivated?? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  7. Unmotivated?? “Students are not unmotivated. However, they may not be motivated to do what we want them to do.” —Richard Lavoie University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  8. Unmotivated?? “Students are not unmotivated. However, they may not be motivated to do what we want them to do.” —Richard Lavoie • Students are motivated when they: • have a goal they believe is achievable • have the desire (reasonable effort) to attain the goal • have a plan in place to attain the goal University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  9. Hope “Successful people have high HOPE. Hope can be nurtured.” —Rick Snyder The Psychology of Hope HOPE results from having willpower (desire) and waypower (a plan) for goals. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  10. I Have a Dream Bryant Gumbel: What do you want to be when you grow up? Jamaal: A judge. Bryant: What will that take? Jamaal: I need to first become a lawyer. Bryant: And how do you do this? Jamaal: I have to study hard now; then finish high school with good grades, then I will go to Grinnell, and then to a good law school. *Grinnell College as reported on the Today Show, November 14, 1990, cited in Borkowski, et al. 1992. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  11. Research Results University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  12. A Possible Selves Solution • Possible Selves are ideas about what one might become in the future (Markus & Nurris, 1986) • One’s vision of the future is motivating • Future vision includes: • Hoped for selves • Expected selves • Feared selves University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  13. Working How am I doing? Planning How do I get there? Reflecting What can I be? Thinking Who am I? Sketching What am I like? Discovering What are my interests? Possible Selves Components “First is the Dream” University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  14. Lesson 1: IntroductionWhy Study Possible Selves? • Fear of the future vignette • I have a dream vignette • Possible Selves film models & discussion • Build a PS Goal Folder • Success formula • The Dream Catcher metaphor • The Unit Organizer • Dreams quote See PS Manual University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  15. Lesson 2: DiscoveringWhat are my strengths and interests? • The Tamara model • October Sky, Rudy, interests • Surface student interests and skills • Highlight strength area(s) collage • Discuss positive experiences Manual p. 17 University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  16. Lesson 3: Thinking about hopes, expectations, and fears • Possible Selves vocabulary • Open-ended interview/ • Describe yourself as a …... • What are your hopes as a ….? • What are your expectations …..? • What are your fears …..? • I DO WE DO YOU DO • Teacher/counselor analysis University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  17. Lesson 3: Thinking • Goal: Identify current & future Possible Selves • Procedures: Complete the interview • One to one • Group/class • I do • We do • You do University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  18. Lesson 3: Thinking Section 1 • Define Hope, Expectation, Fear p. 39 • Conduct the Interview • What words or phrases best describe you as an (educator)? • What do you hope to achieve as an educator? • What do you expect to achieve as an educator? • What do you fear as an educator? Activity Packet University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  19. Describe Example: Educator • Fair • Organized • Outcome driven • Distracted by non-committed students • Irritated by politics of teaching • Creative • Knowledgeable about pedagogy • Bored with routine Your Thoughts? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  20. Lesson 3: Thinking Section 2 • Conduct the Interview • What words or phrases best describe you as a learner? • What do you hope to achieve as a learner? • What do you expect to achieve as a learner? • What do you fear as a learner? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  21. Hope Example: Educator • Connect in positive way with students • Close the academic & social gap • Make a difference—validate interventions! • Maintain enthusiasm • Teach all students • Return focus to K-12 education Your Thoughts? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  22. Lesson 3: Thinking Section 3 • Conduct the Interview • What words or phrases best describe you as an educator? • What do you hope to achieve as an educator? • What do you expect to achieve as an educator? • What do you fear as an educator? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  23. Expectation Example: Educator • Continue in the field of education • Develop additional instructional interventions • Validate Possible Selves • Expand my work with Pathways • Reassess my role at KUAC Your Thoughts? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  24. Lesson 3: Thinking Section 3 • Conduct the Interview • What words or phrases best describe you as an educator? • What do you hope to achieve as an educator? • What do you expect to achieve as an educator? • What do you fear as an educator? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  25. Fears: Educator • Feel stuck—no options • Burn out, become cynical • Lose energy • Just hang around waiting to retire • Stuff doesn’t work! Your Thoughts? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  26. Completing the Questionnaire(optional activity) • Answer remaining questions in “person and learner” areas • Create final overhead quality documents University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  27. Lesson 4: Sketching Me and My Possible Selves • Create a Possible Selves Tree • Questionnaire Highlights Form • Based on the Interview • Draw the tree trunk and 3 limbs w/labels • Draw HOPE and EXPECTATION branches/leaves • Draw the root system for the tree (DESCRIBE) • Draw the FEAR/THREATS to the tree • Stand back and evaluate University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  28. Possible Selves Tree Other Overhead Examples FEAR Injury FEAR A Job I Hate FEAR Flunking Out Even When You Try University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  29. Lesson 5: Reflecting • Goal: to identify goals that strengthen and support growth of the “Tree” • Where are most branches, hopeful words? • Where are fewest branches, hopeful words? • Which limb needs strengthening? • List 3 goals that will help do this. • Prioritize these goals Complete pp. 49-50 University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  30. Lesson 6: Growing • Goal: develop action plans • Select a goal and hope and write on form • Identify action steps that lead to goal attainment University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  31. My Action Plan My hope is to become a certified diesel technician The Hope The Goal I will graduate from Gates Technology School by May 2004. Step 5 Step 4 Improve my basic algebra skills with a Strategic Tutor. Improve my textbook reading skills with a Strategic Tutor. The Tasks Set up tutoring with the After School Prog for math and English. Step 3 Pass all my classes with a GPA of 2.75 Attend class regularly. Step 2 Determine what course I Step 1 Put together a graduation plan. Determine what Ineed to do to get into tech school- H.S. diploma?? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  32. Lesson 7: Performing • Write a Mission Statement • Review/revise/update the plan • Mentor meetings • E-mail (e.g., MyGoals.com model) • Counselors • Peers • Other University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  33. BEFORE I want to be a professional basketball player. I want to touch people’s lives. AFTER I want to be known as a hard worker and strive to be one of the best players in college basketball. I want to be well respected and loved by my family and friends in everything I do. I want to live a good life and support my family as well as other family members. I want to live my life as a caring person who will always help others. I wish to be a good father, husband, and provider. I want to be a very caring person. I wish to end up in heaven. What Is Possible? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  34. Planning for Implementation • Target person(s)/courses • Decide on format • Determine logistics (time, place, staff) • Think about materials • Select evaluation & research data • Conduct problem solving/follow-up University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  35. Possible Selves • One’s vision of the future is motivating • Future vision includes: • Hoped for Possible Selves (dreams) • Expected Possible Selves (short term) • Feared Possible Selves (avoidance) University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  36. Yeah! But……(turn to your neighbor) • How do you see Possible Selves working with your students? • What barriers do you see? • What solutions can you offer? • Does Possible Selves hold promise as an effective motivational intervention??? • What else do you need to launch PS? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  37. So What! Supporting Data • University student-athletes • Counselors • Peers • Elementary school grades 2, 3, 4 • Junior high SED class • Middle school whole school • Middle school selected classes University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  38. BEFORE “Go go man go I can do it on my own.” AFTER I want to be an artist. I want to be a nice person. I want to be a good student. What Is Possible? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  39. BEFORE I want to be a basketball player. I want to do dunks. I want to be like Iverson. AFTER I want to be a pro basketball player after I go to college. I want to use my intelligence to be a good student. I want to be a good person. What Is Possible? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  40. BEFORE I want to be like “Aaliyah” because she was nice and pretty and a singer. To travel and make my dreams come true like Aaliyah. AFTER I want to be a veterinarian and help take care of animals. I will go to college for four years and I will use my knowledge in the workplace. What Is Possible? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  41. Elementary School Pilot Study • Classroom culture change • Goal language • Goals tied to school activities • Implementation success • Student’s have hopes and dreams University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  42. Jardine & Eisenhower Middle School Study • 52 students (10 self-contained sp ed; 21 at risk; 21 comparison) • Whole class implementation in two classrooms (IC support) • Over 1 semester (with other curriculum) University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  43. Possible Selves Outcomes Mission Statement Measure Sig. • Total score .0001* • Number of roles identified .0003* • Level of education .12 • Number of goals stated .0005* • Specificity of goal statements .0003* University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  44. Possible Selves Outcomes • Being Known Measure Sig. .28 • “They still don’t think teachers know them very well.” • WHY??? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  45. Teens and Self-Image: Survey Results Question 8. How much influence does each of the following have on your life? A Lot or Some None Parents 96% 4% Teacher 80% 20% Other kids 78% 22% Religion 70% 30% Girl/Boyfriend 63% 37% Celebrities 63% 37% TV Shows 44% 56% Advertising 36% 64% University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  46. Teens and Self-Image:Survey Results • Question 5. Who understands you the most? • Friend 42% • Parent 28% • Girl/Boyfriend 10% • No one 8% • Sibling 5% • Religious Leader 1% • Teacher 1% • Other 5% University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  47. Yeah! But……(turn to your neighbor) • Do you see Possible Selves working with your students? • What implementation barriers do you see? • What solutions can you offer? • What is needed to support professional development and implementation? • Next steps???? University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006

  48. Possible Selves • One’s vision of the future is motivating • Future vision includes: • Hoped for Possible Selves (dreams) • Expected Possible Selves (short term) • Feared Possible Selves (avoidance) University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2006