sensitization july 22 nd bangalore n.
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Sensitization July 22 nd , Bangalore PowerPoint Presentation
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Sensitization July 22 nd , Bangalore

Sensitization July 22 nd , Bangalore

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Sensitization July 22 nd , Bangalore

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  1. Sensitization July 22nd, Bangalore

  2. Agenda • Addresses the transport issues faced in Indian cities; • Introduces the concept of sustainable urban transport and its components; • Gives an overview of land use and urban transport; mass transit options; non-motorized transport; urban freight, institutional framework and financing options • Highlights gaps observed in Urban Transport Planning Process.

  3. Firstly, lets us understand urban transport scenario in India

  4. Rapid Increase in Urban Population • grown from 17.3 per cent in 1951 to 31.16 per cent in 2011 (indicates increasing number of people live in urban areas). • Increasing share of the urban poor in the total Source: Steering Committee on Urbanization, Planning Commission Report, 2011 Imagine China, 2010

  5. Cities as engines of economic growth Source: As per the McKinsey Global Institute’s, India’s Urban awakening report

  6. Increasing share of Private Vehicle ownership in Cities • Urban Travel Behavior - Source: ROAD TRANSPORT YEAR BOOK (2007 - 2009) (Volume- I) Imagine China, 2010

  7. Decreasing share of Public Transport Cities • Urban Travel Behavior - Imagine China, 2010

  8. The Urban Transport Scenario in India “The adverse impacts of growth in motorization” – - in economic, environmental and social terms They are ruiningthe quality of life and making them less liveable! Imagine China, 2010

  9. Impact of existing Urban Transport Scenario in India The basic problems of motorization are… Energy Consumption CO2 Emissions & Local Air Pollution Safety Impacts Congestion Social Exclusion 2010

  10. Energy Consumption • Transport sector consumes 18% of India’s commercial energy • It accounts for 55% of petroleum products • 98% of transport fuel are from petroleum products • 85% of crude oil is imported – 6.7 lakh crores • Largely due to transport demands (Ghate and Sundar, 2013)

  11. CO2 Emissions & Local Air Pollution Image Source: CSE India Manfred Breithaupt, 2006

  12. CO2 Emissions & Local Air Pollution PM2.5 Concentration (2008) in Select Cities with High Car Ownership Levels PM10 Concentration (2008) with High Car Ownership Levels Source: TERI (Ghate and Sunder, 2013)

  13. Safety Impacts Image Source: Vedant Goyal SUTP, Social Issues in Transport

  14. Safety Impacts India’s RTI Pyramid RTI Deaths 1980- 2009 RTIs 1980- 2009 Image Source: Vedant Goyal Source: NIMHANS, 2011

  15. Safety Impacts Image Source: Vedant Goyal Source: TERI (Ghate and Sunder, 2013)

  16. Safety Impacts Number of Road Accidents, Number of Persons Killed and Number of Persons Injured Per Lakh Population: 1970 – 2011 Source: Road Accidents in India - Ministry of Road Transport and Highway

  17. Congestion AFP Image Forum, 2005

  18. Congestion In Delhi , the loss of fuel due to idling costs about 1000 crores per annum • Decreased Public Transit use • Per capita trip rate will increase from 0.8-1.15 to 1-2 • Increase in motorised trips • Decreased speed to 8-6 km/hr Source: MoUD, 2008, TERI, 2013

  19. Social Exclusion Image Source: Vedant Goyal

  20. Social Exclusion Source: CSTEP, The Hindu, 2013

  21. Health related issues • Mitigation • 10% reduction of PM10 by 2030 • CO2 emission reduced by 10-20% • Benefit of $10-20 billion • 30% reduction of PM10 by 2030 • CO2 emission reduced by 30-60% • Benefit of $47-105 billion • Source: World Bank, 2013

  22. Physical inactivity in the automobile oriented approach Health related issues Source:

  23. Solutions: What are our options? Alternative 1: Capital intensive solutions – focus on supply side (road width/flyovers) Give greater capacity to the road network in the hope to relieve congestion Image Source: CSE India This is where we’re getting to, following the current trend… is it what we want?

  24. Solutions: What are our options? Alternative 2: paradigmshift Over time, achieving greater sustainability in transport means by... ... investing in schemes and initiatives that improve accessibility and developing more effective transit cities. Transmilenio, 2005

  25. IMPROVE Improve the energy efficiency of transport modes and vehicle technology • Low-friction lubricants • Optimal tire pressure • Low Rolling Resistance Tires • Speed limits, Eco-Driving (Raising Awareness) • Shift to alternative fuels • … Options for sustainable mobility REDUCE/AVOID • SHIFT /MAINTAIN Shift to more environmentally friendly modes Reduce or avoid travel or the need to travel • Integration of transport and land-use planning • Smart logistics concepts • … • Mode shift to Non-Motorized Transport • Mode shift to Public Transport • Public Transp. Integration • Transport Demand Management (TDM) • Human behaviour • … Capacity Building Reduced Carbon Emissions

  26. Options for sustainable mobility Smartly Integrating Land Use and Transport Planning Mass Transit Promoting walking and cycling Integration between Transport Infrastructures Robust Institutional and Financial Framework Exploring funding options and branding

  27. Reduce/ Avoid Strategies: Need of travel Transportation Land use planning Transportation Policies, investments affect the accessibility, mobility and also the connectivity The kind, size and location of a particular land can have direct effect on transport system

  28. Reduce/ Avoid Strategies: Need of travel Transit Oriented Development Transmilenio BRT - Source: Source:

  29. Reduce/ Avoid Strategies: Need of travel Transit Oriented Development Source : Features of landuse design by Dagang, 1995

  30. Reduce/ Avoid Strategies: Need of travel Promote mixed land use (at the city scale)

  31. Improve Strategies: Non motorized transport Bangalore, CSTEP

  32. Improve Strategies: Non motorized transport Bangalore, CSTEP

  33. Improve Strategies: Non motorized transport Bangalore, CSTEP

  34. Improve Strategies: Non motorized transport Whitefield Road Bangalore, CSTEP Janmarg, Ahmedabad

  35. Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Shift Strategies: promote public modes Mass Transit Options Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Heavy urban rail Metro Monorail Light rail BRT Personal rapid transit

  36. Shift Strategies: promote public modes Advantages of public transport priority? Corridor Capacity (averagepeople per houron 3.5 m widelane in thecity - pphpd) SuburbanRail (e.g. Mumbai) BRT singlelane Mixed Traffic Regular Bus BRT doublelane Heavy Rail (e.g. Hong Kong) LightRail           PPHPD Range () 60,000 – 90,000 40,000 – 60,000 • 18,000 – 20,000 5,000 – 8,000 15,000 – 18,000 1500 - 2000 1500-2000  Equivalency road width: In order to carry 20,000 automobile commuters PHPD, a highway must be at least 18 lanes wide. (assumption 1.2 passengers per automobile) pphpd= pax / hour / direction Source: Botma & Papendrecht, TU Delft1991 and own figures

  37. Reduce/Shift Strategies: Transportation Demand Management

  38. Improve Strategies: Fuel Technologies

  39. Options for sustainable mobility ... also helps achieving benefits in...

  40. … Urban Freight Transport Reducing Congestion / delays • vehicle sizes do not correspond to manoeuvre possibilities • on- and offloading in second row • extreme variety in transport modes and vehicles sizes • frequent breakdowns and accidents, especially in bottleneck situations, i.e. in heavy traffic and when space is restricted Impairment of road safety • the risk of accidents and serious personal injuries increases when heavy • vehicles mix with passenger vehicles, bicycles or pedestrians • only in very few situations it is possible to segregate the different transport modes • professional traffic engineering, good traffic management and an efficient • organisation of the logistics sector are required Green House Gas (GHG) and Particle Matter (PM) emissions • e.g. in Dijon, France, urban freight transport produces 20% of carbon dioxide and 60% • of particle matter emissions Roadspace occupation • scarce road space due to (unnecessary) • large vehicles, inefficient offloading, bad • street design etc. further problems: - damaging of road infrastructure - noise emissions

  41. ... Efficient Institutional framework

  42. 426 kilometres of BRT 40 kilometres of LRT 14 kilometres of elevated rail 7 kilometres of subway ... Urban transport investment appraisal and financial transparency Choice of Urban Transport – What if you get for 1 Billion USD- The Bangkok case Few to mention: • High Capital and Operation cost • Long Gestation Period • Project Viability • User Charge • Fare Revision • Cost Recovery • Demand Risk • Social Linkages • Macro economic policies

  43. National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) - Vision • people occupy center-stage in our cities • To make our cities the most livable and enable them to become the “engines of economic growth” • Cities evolve into an urban form that is best suited to support their main social and economic activities Feet First Pedal Next Public Transport Motor Vehicles

  44. End Objective - National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP)

  45. Current Gaps in Urban Transport Planning Process

  46. Gaps in Planning Process - 1 Lack of Vision The urban transport system needs to be planned with a vision for the future. In India, there are two scenarios: • Many cities do not have vision statements • A few cities have vision statements, but are vague and cannot be translated to measurable actions. Present examples of vision in some cities are as follows: • To make the city world class city • To make a fast track city • As tourism and heritage city • A commercial city and nodal center • Regionally important and nationally well recognized city

  47. Gaps in Planning Process - 2 Lack of Public Engagement • Non-engagement of public which needs to be broken to be consistent with the reputation of the world‘s largest democracy. • Urban transportation planning must be decentralized with local civic groups in-charge of city based projects

  48. Gaps in Planning Process - 3 Lack of Land Use & Transport Integration • Most of the transportation plans were prepared without a land use plan. • land-use and transport integration has been grossly neglected in the Indian planning scenario. • The City Development Plan needs to be linked to the land use plan and the different sectoral plans, including transport.

  49. Gaps in Planning Process - 4 Focus on Project Feasibility Travel demand estimates became critical due to dynamic growth of traffic in cities Transport studies at frequent and regular intervals Optimistic projections in many cases support a particular transport mode rather that a transport mode resulting from it. Different modes run in competition to each other and often lead to the question of financial viability of the modes. Lack of alternative analysis Absence of consistent evaluation methodology, since there is no in-house expertise to evaluate the systems.

  50. Gaps in Planning Process - 5 Inadequate Planning Capacity • Absence of transport planning departments • In the absence of planning, the cities continue their growth in a haphazard manner. • Shortage of planning expertise