3 3 null auxiliaries n.
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3.3 Null Auxiliaries

3.3 Null Auxiliaries

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3.3 Null Auxiliaries

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  1. 3.3-10 3.3 Null Auxiliaries Elliptical, gapping, null spellout, silent AUX

  2. (15) He could have helped her, or [she have helped him] • TP PRN T´ she T AUXP could AUX VP have V PRN helped him (18) Have-cliticisation blocked: *He could have … or she’ve helped him.

  3. (19) Have-cliticisation Have can encliticise onto a word W ending in a vowel or diphthong provided that • W c-commands have and • W is immediately adjacent to have

  4. 3.4 Null T (21) All finite clauses are TPs headed by an (overt or null) T constituent (23) TP (25) TP PRN T´ PRN T´ He T VP He T VP ? V N Do+Af3SgPr V N enjoys syntax does enjoy syntax enjoyed Af3SgPr enjoys syntax Affix Hopping (Af: Tense Affix) Chomsky (1995): All heads in a syntactic structure are required to play a role in determining the meaning of the overall structure. Cf. perfecthave (AUX) vs. causative/experiencedhave (V) (31) a. They’ve seen a ghost (perfect have) b.*They’ve their car serviced regularly (causative have) c.*They’ve students walk out on them sometimes (experienced have)

  5. Null T in infinitive clauses (33) a. I have never known [Tomcriticiseanyone] him => Tomhas never been known [to criticise anyone] b. A reporter saw [Senator Sleaze leave Benny’s Bunny Bar] => Hewas seen [to leave B’s B B] (35) ECM verbs TP a. I expect [him to win] N T´ b. I judged [him to be lying] Tom T VP c. They reported [him to be missing] toV PRN d. I believe [him to be innocent] criticise anyone

  6. 3.6 Null C in finite clauses (44) We didn’t know [he had resigned] or [that he had been accused of corruption] (49) A: What were you going to ask me? B: a. Ifyou feel like a Coke b. Doyou feel like a Coke? c.*If do you feel like a Coke? (50) [I am feeling thirsty], but [shouldI save my last Coke till later]? (52) Case Condition A pronoun or noun expression is assigned case by the closest case- assigning head which c-commands it A finite C constituent (whether overt or null) assigns nominative case to the subject of its clause under c-command

  7. 3.7 Null C in infinite clauses (55) I want [Mary to come to Japan] and [for her to see my parents] (57) obl. for-deletion when immediately followswant a. *More than anything, she wanted for him to apologise b. More than anything, she wanted him to apologise c. She wantedmore than anythingfor him to apologise d. *She wantedmore than anythinghim to apologise (58) a. What she wanted was for him to apologise b.*What she wanted was him to apologise

  8. 3.8 Defective clauses ECMverbs (67) *We didn’t intend [you to hurt him] or [forhim to hurt you] (70) a. He is believed to hurt you b. You weren’t intended to hurt him (72) Impenetrability Condition A constituent in the domain of (i.e. c-commanded by) a complementiser is impenetrable to (and so cannot be attracted by) a higher head c-commanding the complementiser (73)*[CP [C Ø] [TPYou [Tweren’t] intended [CP [Cfor] [TP you [Tto] hurt anyone]]]] x (PIC)

  9. 3.9 Null determiners and quantifiers (81) a. DP b. DP c. DP D N D N D N we linguists you linguists Ø linguists (82) a. Eggs and many dairy products cause cholesterol b. I’d like toast and some coffee please QP Q N Ø eggs toast

  10. Longobardi (2005)‘Toward a Unified Grammar of Reference’ • Italian bare arguments are in fact DPswith a null D • DP D NP ∂ potatoes ∂ : phonologically null N-to-D raising: obligatory for PNs (proper nouns), impossible for BNs (bare nouns)

  11. Determinerless arguments (1) PNs(proper names): (2) BNs(bare nouns): to denote a definite, specific entity mass or plural head nouns (Kripke 1980) Ho incontrato Maria/te a. Bevo sempre vino 'I met Maria/you.' 'I always drink wine.‘ b. Ho mangiato patate 'I ate potatoes.'