World Leaders (sp) Long Terms Causes Allies Triple Alliance/Central Powers Archduke Franz Ferdinand Immediate Cause of the War Schlieffen Plan (sp) Trench Warfare No Man’s Land American Foreign Policy British Blockade German U-Boats Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Lusitania: 5/7/1915 1916 Election Zimmerman Note Why the US Enters the War: 4/6/1917 Wilson’s War Aim American Militarism Selective Service Act, 1917 African American Troops Convoy System General John Pershing Conscientious Objector Germany’s Collapse Cease Fire US Home Front Food Administration Victory Gardens War Bonds Committee of Public Information George Creel Anti-War World War I“The War to End All Wars”1914 - 1918
Espionage & Sedition Act Schenk v. USA, 1919 (sp) Great Migration Women Wilson’s Peace Plan League of Nations The Big Four Treaty of Versailles, 1919 Terms Reparations War Guilt Clause Weaknesses of the Treaty (sp) Congress Rejects the Treaty League of Nations is Weak Post War Germany Isolationism
Differing Viewpoints • “Family Feud” • “Fall of the Eagles” • “The War to End All Wars” • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
World Leaders • Woodrow Wilson: President of the USA • Kaiser Wilhelm II: German leader • President Poincare: French leader • Victor Emmanuel: Leader of Italy • King George V: King of England • Franz Josef: Leader of Austria-Hungary • Czar Nicholas II: Czar of Russia • Will be removed from power • V. Lenin will be the leader of the Soviet Union
World Leaders • Germany: • Kaiser Wilhelm II • England • King George V • Russia • Beginning: Czar Nicholas II • End: V. Lenin • USA • President Wilson
Militarism Building up of militaries Alliance System Taking Sides - secretly “MAIN” Causes Long Term Causes of WWI Nationalism Pride in one’s nation; National pride Imperialism Taking territories - colonies
Immediate Cause of WWI“The Spark” • The Balkans were annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908 • The Balkans known as the “Powder Keg of Europe • Serbia encouraging rejection of their reign • Resentful of A-H • To drum up support for the A-H Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the A-H throne, visited the area • Assassinated by Gavrilo Principe
The Assassin: GavriloPrincip
1,2,3,4…Let’s Declare War!! • July 28, 1914 • Expansive alliance system brought many countries into war • 7/28/14: A-H declares war on Serbia (a quick little war) • Russia declares war of A-H 7/29/14, protecting the Serbs (allies) • Germany declares war of Russia 8/1/14, & France the next day • Great Britain declares war on A-H & Germany to help their allies – Frenchy • Within days, all of central Europe has been brought into war • The war has begun!
Teams Allies: “The Good Guys” France, Great Britain, Russia Later the US in, Russia out due to Revolution Triple Alliance AKA – The Central Powers:“The Bad Guys” Germany, Austria-Hungary & the Ottoman Empire
1916 Election • Democrat Woodrow Wilson wins the election • His campaign slogan was “He Kept Us Out of War” • Ran against Charles Hughes who did not want to treat Germany as harsh as most Americans want to
1917: US Gets Involved April 6, 1917 The US enters the war on the side of the Allies 1914: WWI Begins The US remains Neutral, but still trades with both sides
Reasons the US Got Involved in WWI • England blockaded Germany’s coastline • US supplies rarely made it to their destination • Causes fertilizer & food shortages: 750,000 Germans will die as a result of the blockade! • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare:Aggressive German tactics – U-Boats attacked & sank many ships • U-Boats: German subs • Harsh b/c no way to warn the crew, exploited by the Yellow Press • Germany will be seen as the “bully of Europe” as a result of this practice
Zimmerman Note • German Telegram to the ambassador to Mexico • Suggested a German-Mexican Alliance if the US gets involved in the war • Germany promises Mexico the return of all land lost during the Mexican-American War! • Germany wants Mexico to attack the US from the south & west
US Enters the War: 4/6/1917 • Aggressive German tactics (unrestricted submarine warfare) • Zimmerman Note • Russia pulls out of war in 1917 • After Russian Revolution, Russia leaves the war – leaves the Allies weak! • Wilson’s (US) War Aim:Make the World Safe for Democracy
August, 1914 Schlieffen Plan • German plan of attack • Named after Count Alfred von Schlieffen • 2 part plan • Holding pattern against Russia • Attack France via Belgium • Created 2 theaters of war • Western Front & Eastern Front
Trench Warfare • Trenches were dug to house fighting soldiers • Stretched across the European countryside • Very bloody warfare over yards of land • During the battle of the Somme, the British lost 60,000! • Inconclusive warfare due to stalemates • No Man’s Land:Area between opposing trenches • Craters, mines – you did not want to be there!
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
U-Boats German submarines
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • German U-Boats will sink (did sink) any ship in British waters
Lusitania • British liner sunk by German U-Boats • 128 Americans died • Seen as organized murder • Public opinion of Germany is negative • Germany defends itself by claiming their were munitions hidden aboard • Long Term Cause for American entry into the war • After the discovery of the downed ship, it was learned there were munitions hidden aboard, as Germany claimed!
Unrestricted submarine warfare • Jan. 31, 1917 – Germany announces to the world that their submarines would sink any ship found in the waters around Britain. • The Housatonic - Feb. 3, 1917 US cargo ship torpedoed & sunk without warning
American Militarism • When war was declared, only 200,000 men in military, 55 planes & 130 pilots • Very outdated weapons! • Massive build up of US armed forces • Trained with pretend weapons due to shortage • Selective Service Act, 1917: Draft • Over 10,000 registered • Average age of European soldier is 22
African Americans • Large numbers joined the military • Prove their worth (as if they had to) • Served in segregated units • 1st African American military officers • 389th Infantry Regiment (Harlem Hellfighters): Saw the most frontline combat • Henry Johnson & Needham Roberts received the highest French military honor “Croix de Cuerre” (Cross of War) • Not even recognized by the US – Progressive Presidents did squat for African Americans!
Convoy System • Conceived by British Admiral William Sims • Merchants ships would travel in a group of military ships for protection from German U-Boats • Ships loss down 50% • Germans will start using sea mines • Barrier of mines across the North Sea • Still some floating around today!
The Convoy System • Merchant vessels and warships traveling together in great numbers for safety
General John Pershing • Leader of US troops in Europe • US troops were being used as replacements & were told to fight under the flag of another country! • American troops were often called doughboys because of their uniforms • Insisted US fight under own flag • “I will not parcel out our American boys!” • Wanted to make sure the US had a strong voice at the peace talks when the war ended
New Weapons WWI is the 1st mechanized war (using modern machines & equipment) Contributed to the high casualty rate
New Weapons • Reliance on machines with diesel & gas powered engines • Mechanized warfare • Big Bertha, German cannon launching 1,800 lb shells 9 miles • Machine guns: 600 rounds/minute • Poison Gas: Mustard Gas • Leads to the invention of the gas masks
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Medic!! • Trenches full of diseases: Dysentery • Lice, rats, sewage & corpses • Trench Foot: Feet would rot due to wet conditions • Shell Shock: Emotional collapse
Ypres • The 1st use of poison gas in wartime (used by the Germans first)
Turning Point of WWI • US entry into WWI is the turning point • We provided fresh soldiers, economic & military aid, & war goods by increasing industrial production • Mutiny among German soldiers • Citizens in Berlin rebel, declared Republic of Germany • Kaiser abdicated the throne • Stepped down • There is no decisive battle • German war machine & economy run out of steam • War of attrition
Cease Fire • Germany agreed to a cease fire on Nov. 11, 1918 • Ends the fighting • 11th hour, of the 11th day of the 11th month Celebration in the streets of Paris
Toll of War • 30 nations involved • Bloodiest war to date • 37.5 million casualties • 50% due to disease & starvation • Just over ½ of all men didn’t return home • USA suffered 364,000 casualties • 10 million refugees • Cost $186+ billion US troops burying American Soldiers in France