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Connections. Between the Constitution & Ancient Republics, & English Precedents. ADVANTAGE. Then Justice Then The Good. Polis  The State. POLITEA The Regime. PAIDEIA What Makes a State What It Is. POLITEUMA The Ruling Order. GOOD MEN. Are Needed for Good Government. LOGOS.

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  1. Connections Between the Constitution & Ancient Republics, & English Precedents

  2. ADVANTAGE Then Justice Then The Good

  3. Polis The State POLITEA The Regime PAIDEIA What Makes a State What It Is POLITEUMA The Ruling Order

  4. GOOD MEN Are Needed for Good Government

  5. LOGOS • Highest Moral Excellence --- Highest Virtue • Public Life • Fraternity • Private Life most like animals.

  6. Polis The State POLITEA The Regime PAIDEIA What Makes a State What It Is POLITEUMA The Ruling Order

  7. Greeks Politeia Regime: The Assembly Politeuma Ruling order: Citizens Paideia What makes a city what it is: Iliad & Odyssey Virtue: The highest moral excellence: Participation in the Polis- Logos Contrasts: Spartans Athenians Greeks Persians

  8. Private Life Becomes important during the Christian Era

  9. Founders Brought up on: • Greeks • Plato • Aristotle • Romans • Plutarch 46-120 AD • Livy 59 BC – 17AD • Cicero 106 – 43 BC

  10. Founders Brought up on: • Machiavelli • Bacon • Hobbes • Montesquieu • Sidney • Harrington • Locke • Hume

  11. Founders Reflect on: • Greeks • Romans • Christianity (and ancient Judaism) • History of England

  12. Greek Problem • Haves vs. Have-nots • Have-nots can vote • They continuously vote for war • Constant faction quarrels

  13. Polis The State POLITEA The Regime PAIDEIA What Makes a State What It Is POLITEUMA The Ruling Order

  14. ROME The Roman Republic was based on a military culture. • Politeia Regime: Comitia Centuriata • Politeuma Ruling order: Patrician, Nobility • Paideia What makes a state: Romulus & Remus • Virtue: The highest moral excellence: Heroic Martial Valor Pride, Honor • Contrasts The Republic The Empire

  15. Rome solves the problem • Romans allow everyone to vote • But the poor have less votes • Votes are weighed towards the upper classes. • Upper classes fight in wars • Not the poor • Privilege & Duties for Stakeholders

  16. Roman Justice • Romans take 1/3 of all conquered lands. • Plant a colony within • Extended Citizenship • Even to freed slaves or to the conquered. • Upward Mobility – Novus Homo • New man from lower classes – Cicero • Ulpian – 3rd Century AD “By law of nature all men are equal.”

  17. Major Change Christianity Universal Religion for Universal Empire • Equality of All • All can get to Heaven • All can be become HOLY • Highest moral excellence – HOLINESS • Otherworld Matters Most Private Life is Paramount

  18. GREEK LOGOS Remains

  19. New Culture melds • Jerusalem • Athens • Rome

  20. Christianity There were major changes from ancient Rome Politeia Regime: The Church\ The Empire Politeuma Ruling order Bishops -- the Magisterium have authority. German nobles have political/martial power. Paideia What makes a city what it is: New Testament, Church Tradition, Feudal Order Virtue The highest moral excellence: Holiness Fidelity Contrasts Decentralized Latin Kingdoms The Centralized Byzantine Empire Christianity --- Islam


  22. EKKLESIA The Assembly

  23. Ecclesiastics The Church Debating Society Politics is Necessary Celibacy

  24. Separation of Church & State Western Civilization

  25. Pope vs. Emperor Bishop vs. King

  26. Byzantine EmpireEastern Christianity Caesaropapism

  27. Weak Feudal Kings • Must Call Parleys (Speech) • Parliaments • Feudal Oaths • Church monopolizes: Justice & the Good • King controls: The Advantage

  28. Duel PoliteumaChurch holds AuthorityKing hold Power Church monopolizes Justice & the Good King controls the Advantage

  29. Polis The State POLITEA The Regime PAIDEIA What Makes a State What It Is POLITEUMA The Ruling Order

  30. Next BreakMajor Changes • 1476 Swiss Pikesmen • 1500-1520 Machiavelli • 1517 Luther


  32. MACHIAVELLIFather of Modern Liberal Democracy

  33. MAN Is WICKED! Christianity without Grace & Redemption Do not trust anyone!

  34. RETURN TO • the Ancient Roman Paideia • the Virtue of Heroic Martial Honor Reject the Christian message

  35. GOOD INSTITUTIONS Not Good Men as the Means to Good Government

  36. BALANCE CONFLICT TENSION Grandi & Popolo united to destroy their neighbors

  37. ONLY Focus on ADVANTAGE

  38. Reason is the Slave of Passion • Appetite tells us what to do • Desire focuses our attention

  39. VIRTUE In the Institutions

  40. CONTRAST • Ancient Republics • Medieval Republics • Modern Republics

  41. Focus on the Concept of: VIRTUE The Highest Moral Excellence in the Society

  42. Polis The State POLITEA The Regime PAIDEIA What Makes a State What It Is POLITEUMA The Ruling Order

  43. Further Development • Francis Bacon • Thomas Hobbes • James Harrington • John Locke

  44. BACON Wants to Overthrow & Conquer Nature Wants to Subvert the Church Throw the Priests out of Universities Bring in the Scientists Science is King

  45. Hobbes • Bacon’s Secretary • Reason is the Slave to Passion • Like Machiavelli • Restores Justice • but only as a tool • Orient Society around fear of violent death • War is an obstacle to progress • -- an obstacle to Commerce

  46. ONLY A Strong King can keep the Peace, through fear of a Violent Death. Peace allows Commerce We can get bits of satisfaction.


  48. John Locke Continues the Move away from Christianity God gave man the EARTH God gave man REASON Natural Providence is a Reflection of Divine Providence

  49. ANCIENTS & CHRISTIANS Humans only have use of things on Earth Stewardship

  50. Every Man has Property in His own Person • Major Paradigm Shift • The Labor or Work of my hands are mine ---- My Property • Common land becomes “my land.” • “I work it. It’s mine!”

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