Globalization of Media How do mass media affect global audiences?
Ideology • System of meanings, values & beliefs • Governs the way we see the world and ourselves • Controls what we see as natural or obvious
U.S. Ideology • Consumerism • Private ownership • Pursuit of profit • Free markets • Individual achievement
Cultural Imperialism • Concerned with domination of one culture by another • One-way flow of entertainment programming • Threatens cultural identities of other nations, especially in 3rd world
U.S. films = 64% of European market • Locals can’t compete financially • Many countries regulate programming • Canada requires 60% own TV • Some countries subsidize film making • US argues for free markets
Critics argue that: • Entertainment programs transmit culture as well as entertainment • Crucial role in transmitting and developing cultural identities (socialization) • Children are especially vulnerable
Critics argue that: • Western media producers destroy values and diverse cultures • They import corrupt images of lifestyles, social relations • Individualism, hedonism • Cultural diversity should be preserved
Defenders of globalism: • Audiences aren’t passive • There’s a “discount” factor w/foreign programming • Audiences “filter” what comes in • Plurality of interpretation (selective perception)
Ponder this • How do concepts of cultural imperialism relate to your reading about global children’s TV and global MTV?
Children’s TV • Children’s TV dominated worldwide by U.S. • Animation translates well & has long shelf life • Also kids’ magazines, audio & video, online shopping & recreation
Global toy market--companies in other countries can’t compete w/US & our aggressive marketing • Also can’t compete w/low cost of US programming
MTV • “Think globally, act locally” • Globalization of Western youth culture • Predominance of English-language videos on its networks • MTV exploits synergies (Viacom home videos, CDs, consumer products, books) • Also expands youth market for jeans, designer clothes, watches, soft drinks, etc.)
Hegemony • Those in power secure social submission of those not in power • Power not secured by force, but by socialization • Transmission of values
Media Hegemony • Media produce a cohesive ideology • A set of commonsensical values & norms