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Driving Safety

Driving Safety

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Driving Safety

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  1. Driving Safety On-the-job driving hazards and controls October, 2010

  2. Topics covered in this module • Driving fatalities and injuries • Safe driving tips • Distracted driving • Driver fatigue • Pedestrian safety • Work zone safety • Defensive driving • Driving behavior/aggressive driving • Laws, regulations and additional information Image courtesy of WSDOT

  3. Each year there are more than 40,000 deaths nationwide related to motor vehicle crashes Introduction to the Importance of SAFE DRIVING In Washington State, the most frequent work-related fatality is from motor vehicle crashes (22 %) What is not in the statistics are the countless family members, friends, and co-workers grieving the loss of someone they were close to Image courtesy of Education for the Driving Masses

  4. On Washington public roadways between 2004 and 2008 there were 640,364 total collisions, 2679 fatal collisions, and 11,725 serious injury collisions. UNSAFE DRIVING In 2009, there were 1663 worker compensation claims where workers were injured in highway accidents. Costs for these claims was $20 million. Work-related motor vehicle crash fatalities in Washington State, 1998-2007 Annual Collision Data - Washington State Department of Transportation

  5. Unsafe Driving • Top three causes of motor vehicle accidents • Distracted or inattentive driving • Speeding • Impairment (drugs or alcohol) Washington State impaired driving fact sheet • Other causes : • Failing to yield • No signal when turning • Running a stop sign • Driving left of center • Wrong turns • Following too closely Wikimedia Commons Image courtesy of Fancy Images – Royalty Free

  6. High Risk Areas • Many accidents occur at these locations: • Major Highways (merge lanes, congested traffic) • Parking Lots • Railroad Crossings • Work Zones • School Zones

  7. Many motor vehicle crashes occur during the workday or during the commute to and from work. Employers bear the cost for injuries that occur both on and off the job. Whether you manage a fleet of vehicles, oversee a mobile sales force or simply employ commuters, by implementing a driver safety program in the workplace you can greatly reduce the risks faced by your employees and their families while protecting your company's bottom line. Does your company have a safe driver program? Image courtesy of Creative Commons OSHA Guidelines for Employers to Reduce Motor Vehicle Crashes

  8. Personal Responsibility Not only is it the employer’s responsibility to enforce safe driving policies for their workers, it is a personal responsibility to improve driving behaviors. It is a public safety issue and has a huge economic impact.

  9. Basic Safe Driving Tips • Basic rules to follow: • Wear seatbelts • Drive the speed limit • Obey traffic signs and stop lights • Use turn signals • Do not tailgate Drivers should be extra cautious and alert : • at peak times of the day when there are more people • when children are present • when driving through a worksite • at entrances and exits, including driveways • at crosswalks • at railroad crossings • during poor weather conditions • when driving at night Top 5 things to know about buckling up

  10. Vehicle Safety Inspections Inspect your vehicle regularly to make sure the following are in good shape: • Tires (including spare) • Horn • Lights • Windshield and wipers • Mirrors • Brakes • Heating • Seatbelts • Fluids • First aid/roadside safety kit Image courtesy of Creative Commons National Highway Traffic Safety Administration - Tire Safety

  11. Distracted Driving Click here to watch: Driving Safety Video Image courtesy of Florida Today, by Jeff Parker

  12. Distracted Driving & Inattentive Behavior Nearly 6,000 people died in 2008 in crashes involving a distracted driver, and more than half a million were injured. (Source: National Traffic Safety Administration) Drivers who use hand-held devices are four times as likely to get into crashes serious enough to injure themselves. (Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety) The temptation for drivers to text and use cell phones has made it difficult to minimize road fatalities. Please do your part to control the number of fatalities and injuries. PAY ATTENTION DRIVERS Image courtesy of Drivers Ed Guru

  13. A driver’s first responsibility is the safe operation of the vehicle. • If you are distracted by a phone conversation, you are putting yourself at risk of a collision, and possibly endangering others. Cell Phones are a Driving Distraction Texting While Driving – How Dangerous is it?(from Car & Driver Magazine) Distracted Driving Website:

  14. Cell Phones are a Driving Distraction Alternatives: • Turn off cell phone while driving • Pull off to the side of the road to make important calls NOTE: Hands – free devices are safer than holding a phone, however, that does not diminish the dialing distraction and inability to focus completely on driving during a conversation Image courtesy of

  15. Cell Phones: Alternatives and Exceptions Alternatives • Bluetooth • Voice-activated and speed dialing • Push-to-Talk devices (radio) • Voice mail and Caller ID answer caller until getting to safe destination Image courtesy of Ryder Safety Solutions • Exceptions: • Emergencies – calling law enforcement for assistance • Reporting road hazards to the authorities • Notifying the authorities of erratic driver • Note: Before using for emergency, determine if the call can be made safely.

  16. Portable Electronic Equipment Policy • Example policy verbiage (L & I employee policy): • “Use of portable electronic equipment, including, but not limited to, cell phones (including hands-free), text pagers, Blackberries and other PDAs, electronics, and laptop computers, is prohibited at any time while driving any vehicle on work business, except in an emergency situation where 911 is called. • Voice activated Global Positioning Units (GPS) are acceptable. However any input of these devices must be done prior to driving. • Supervisors will train employees on safe and acceptable alternatives to using electronic equipment while driving.”

  17. Driver Fatigue According to the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) at least 100,000 police reported crashes are the direct result of driver fatigue each year. Result = 1,550 deaths and 71,000 injuries Image courtesy of American Public University, Shift Work Disorder news bulletin

  18. Drivers Need to Stay Alert • Take action to ensure you are driving alert: • Make lifestyle changes; diet, exercise, plenty of rest • Don’t rely on “quick fixes” that may not work. Avoid regular use of alcohol, smoking, caffeine • Stop if you need to. Take a nap or brisk walk outside. Image courtesy of Health

  19. Pedestrians vs. Motorists In the United States, between 1997 and 2007, there were 53,793 pedestrian fatalities.In Washington State between 2004 - 2008 there were a total of 332 pedestrian fatalities. Important safety reminder: Drivers are required to yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing streets in marked or unmarked crosswalks in most situations. Image courtesy of WSP National Highway Traffic Safety Administration – Pedestrian Safety

  20. Pedestrians vs. Motorists Safety Tips • Don’t assume the pedestrian sees you • Move carefully when lighting is poor and look around the vehicle prior to accelerating • If vision is obstructed, be especially slow when making a turn • Be aware that parking lots may have missing stop signs or faded traffic lane stripes due to lack of maintenance

  21. Collisions Involving Children and Motorists In 2008, one in every five children between the ages of 5 and 9 killed in traffic accidents were pedestrians. (NHTSA) • Most common types of collisions between children and motorists are due to: • Child darting out into the street at a corner or mid-block • Vehicle turns into the path of a child • Child hidden from view by a service or delivery truck • Child hidden from view by a bus – driver does not stop for bus • Vehicle backing up in roadways, driveways, or parking lots

  22. Work Zone Safety What is a “work zone” ? A work zone is an area of roadway with construction, maintenance, or utility work activities. A work zone is typically marked by signs, channelizing devices, barriers, pavement markings, and/or work vehicles. It extends from the first warning sign or rotating/strobe lights on a vehicle to the “End of Road Work” sign or the last temporary traffic control device. Workzone accident case reports Images courtesy of WSDOT

  23. Work Zone Safety Washington State Department of Transportation - Give 'em a BRAKE Drivers generally don’t think they are at risk in work zones. • Unfortunately, Washington averages almost 1,000 highway work zone injuries each year. - 99 percent the people injured or killed in work zone collisions are drivers and their passengers. - Most injuries and deaths in work zones are caused by rear-end collisions. - Inattentive drivers are not prepared for sudden slow downs and last minute lane changes in work zones. Image courtesy of Fotosearch – Royalty Free

  24. Work Zone Safety Tips • Do not speed in work zones; obey the posted speed limits. • Stay alert! Expect the unexpected. • Watch for workers; drive with caution. • Don't change lanes unnecessarily. • Avoid using mobile phones while driving in work zones. • Turn on headlights so that workers and other drivers can see you. • Be especially alert at night while driving in work zones. • Expect delays, especially during peak travel times. • Allow ample space between you and the car in front of you. • Anticipate lane shifts, and merge when directed to do so. • Be patient!

  25. Defensive Driving Defensive driving involves the cultivation of good habits, maintaining attention and a thoughtful, cooperative attitude. A defensive driver learns to anticipate the actions of others. PLAN YOUR ESCAPE ROUTE • Important Defensive Driving Skills: • Make good decisions based on factors like road conditions, • traffic conditions, and weather • Evasive maneuvering • Proper hand placement and seating position • Skid control • Steering and braking techniques • Understand your vehicle’s dynamics If you haven’t had training, attend a defensive driving course.

  26. Defensive Driving Key Points • Keepspace in front of your vehicle to allow time to stop. At 60 mph, a vehicle travels 88 feet per second. In the ¾ of a second it takes to put your foot on the brake, you’ve gone 66 feet—180 to 220 feet before you stop! If you speed or tailgate, by the time you SEE a problem, you’re out of luck! • Speed management - as speed of your vehicle increases so does the severity of an accident. • Know your vehicle’s blind spots to avoid a potential collision. Image courtesy of WA Traffic Safety Commission

  27. Behavior Behind the Wheel – “ATTITUDE” There are various aspects of driving that act as stressors, and frequently impact many motorists’ state of mind and driving ability: 1. Immobility 2.    Constriction 3.    Regulation 4.    Lack of control 5.    Being put in danger 6.    Territoriality 7.    Diversity 8.    Multi-tasking 9.     Denying our mistakes 10.  Cynicism 11.  Loss of objectivity 12.  Venting 13.  Unpredictability 14.   Ambiguity 15.  Undertrained in emotional intelligence

  28. Behavior Behind the Wheel – “ATTITUDE” Driver behavior shown below as skills and errors in three behavioral areas "Why is Driving Stressful" - Taxonomy of Driving Behavior

  29. Behavior Behind the Wheel – “ATTITUDE” Avoid Aggressive Behavior and Become a Supportive Driver Stage 1--Avoiding Being an Aggressive Driver • Affective Level - Overcoming my resistance to change • Cognitive Level - Learning to do rational analyses of traffic incidents • Sensorimotor Level - Acting out civil behavior Stage 2--Becoming a Supportive Driver • Affective Level - Maintaining a supportive orientation towards other drivers • Cognitive Level - Analyzing driving situations objectively • Sensorimotor Level - Behaving like a happy person Encourage drivers to practice self observation behind the wheel and keep a record

  30. Washington State Patrol The Washington State Patrol has a number of webpages covering information on driving laws, road rage/aggressive drivers, secured loads and traffic enforcement. Driver and Vehicle - WSP Road Rage and Aggressive Driving Driver Safety – Rules of the Road Enforcement – Target Zero Secured Loads Click on the link below to watch the WSP aggressive driving enforcement video

  31. Washington Department of Transportation WSDOT's Traffic Operations Division is using a number of tools to manage the highways better, safer and more efficiently.  Operating efficiently means taking steps to smooth traffic flows and avoid, or reduce, situations that constrict roads.  Much of this is done using traffic technology, such as electronic tolling, traffic management centers, traffic cameras, variable message signs and ramp meters. These solutions make drivers better able to adapt to changing circumstances and unforeseen events. WSDOT Traffic Operations Safety Webpage

  32. Washington State Traffic Laws (Rules of the Road) The Washington State Legislature has adopted a number of laws related to traffic and driving safety that cover such topics as: - Passing on the roadway - Right of way - Pedestrians’ rights and duties - Turning, starting, stopping - Speed restrictions - Reckless driving - Driving under the influence - Vehicular homicide and assault RCW 46.61 - Rules of the Road

  33. Additional Resources American Driver & Traffic Safety Education Association Washington Traffic Safety Commission Department of Licensing – Driving records National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Washington Operation Lifesaver– safety at railroad crossings AAA Foundation for Highway Safety Center for Disease Control & Prevention – motor vehicle safety

  34. More Resources Speeding over 100 MPH causes fatal collision Images courtesy of Free.Foto - Shutterstock