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Chapter 12
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Chapter 12

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  1. Chapter 12 A Glossary of Usage Common Usage Problems pgs. 306-327

  2. Standard English • Standard English is language that is grammatically correct and appropriate in formal and informal situations. • Formal situation (speeches, school compositions, etc.) • Informal situation (conversations, personal writing-like letters)

  3. a, an • Use a before words that begin with a consonant sound. • He is a hero. • Use an before words beginning with a vowel sound. • An owl is a beautiful bird. • An hour can be a long time to wait in line.

  4. accept, except • Accept is a verb that means “to receive”. • I cannot accept your gift because it’s too extravagant. • Except can be either a verb or a preposition. As a verb, it means “to leave out” or “to exclude”. As a preposition, it means “other than” or “excluding”. • The students were excepted from the final exam. • Do all of the problems except number 8.

  5. affect, effect • Affect is a verb meaning “to influence”. • His misbehavior affected the principal’s decision. • Effect can be either a verb (meaning “to bring about”) or a noun (meaning “the result of some action”). • The new law effected great changes in crime rates. • The effect of studying can be higher grades.

  6. ain’t • Avoid using ain’t in both speaking and writing because it is nonstandard English.

  7. all ready, already • All ready means “completely prepared”. • I was all ready for my trip when the bus arrived. • Already means “previously”. • I had already packed my bags.

  8. all right • All right should be written as two words. • When used as an adjective, all right means “unhurt” or “satisfactory”. • The passengers in the wreck were all right. • When used as an adverb, all right means “well enough”. • He did all right at the competition.

  9. a lot • A lot should always be written as two words. • She completed a lot of volunteer work. alot

  10. anyways, anywheres, everywheres, nowheres, somewheres • These words should not be used with a final s. • anyway • anywhere • everywhere • nowhere • somewhere

  11. at • Do not use at after where. Where is your textbook at? Where is your textbook?

  12. bad, badly • Bad is an adjective. • The milk smells bad. • Badly is an adverb. • The soloist sang badly.

  13. between, among • Between is used when referring to two things at a time, even if there are more than two things in the group. • I ate a snack between school and piano practice. • Among is used when referring to a group rather than to separate individuals. • There was disagreement among the Cubs fans about the umpire’s decision.

  14. bring, take • Bring means “to come carrying something”. • Bring your assignment to the teacher. • Take means “to go carrying something”. • Take your textbook home with you.

  15. bust, busted • Avoid using these words as verbs. Use a form of burst, break, catch, or arrest. He was busted for selling drugs. He was arrested for selling drugs.

  16. could of, should of, would of, might of, must of • These helping verbs should not be followed with of. Use have instead. Our team should of won the championship. Our team should have won the championship.

  17. fewer, less • Fewer is used with plural words and tells “how many”. • How many fewer students run track than play football? • Less is used with singular words and tells “how much”. • Is less water needed for a cactus or a corn plant?

  18. good, well • Good is an adjective. • The students thought the cookies tasted good. • Well is usually an adverb, but it may also be used as an adjective to mean “healthy”. • The students performed well on their exam. • I stayed home because I didn’t feel well.

  19. had ought, hadn’t ought • Ought should not be used with had. The government had ought to help the poor. The government ought to help the poor. The government should help the poor.

  20. hardly, scarcely • Both hardly and scarcely convey negative meanings. They should not be used with another negative word to express a single negative idea. I can’t hardly wait to see that movie! I can hardly wait to see that movie!

  21. Your Assignment: • Page 315 • Review A, #1-10 • Workbook pages 194-195, evens ONLY!