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PIA 2020

PIA 2020. Introduction to Public Affairs. Overview. Models of Governance Institutions The Public Sector and the Economy: “Contemporary Models” of Governance and Socio-Economic Change The European Model, North Atlantic Unity and Japan

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PIA 2020

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  1. PIA 2020 Introduction to Public Affairs

  2. Overview • Models of Governance Institutions • The Public Sector and the Economy: “Contemporary Models” of Governance and Socio-Economic Change • The European Model, North Atlantic Unity and Japan • Neo-Orthodoxy: The Debates Over Development: Africa, Asia and Latin America • Comparative Methodology Issues

  3. 1. Models of Governance: An Ideal

  4. Fundamental: Debates About Democracy Debates about DemocracyVIDEO

  5. Political Models • Separation of Powers • Parliamentary System • Mixed Systems of Government • One Party or No Party Systems • Military and Authoritarian Systems

  6. Separation of Powers • “Presidential System” U.S. Mexico Philippines Many Latin American Countries

  7. Parliamentary System: Cabinet or Fused Government United Kingdom Scandinavia Central Europe India Former British Colonies

  8. The French Hybrid- The Mixed Presidential Model France French Colonies Weak Hybrids with a Ceremonial President

  9. One Party States: “Democratic Centralism” Communist or Leninist States Afro-Marxist Fascist “No Party Regimes” Weak Party Systems

  10. “Absolutism”

  11. Governance Theory in the 1990s a. Often turns out to be very specific: i.e. focused institutions 1. Ombudsman 2. Auditor General 3. Territorial Governor as rep. of national authority- the Prefectoral system b. The Problem: Comparative studies of institutions are very expensive-run out of money/go back to case studies c. The New Solution: Integration- The Whole of Government Approach

  12. Swedish Ombudsman

  13. From 1989-2001 • End of Cold War • Application of Structural Adjustment to Socialist Countries • September 11 • Democracy and Governance • Public Private Partnerships • Whole of Government Approach

  14. Whole of Government

  15. 2001-Present Micro-Issues: Debate about “Whole of Government • Public-Private Partnerships • Evaluation and Contracting Out • Three D’s: Diplomacy, Defense and Development

  16. 2. The Public Sector and the Economy • Free Market • Mixed or Social Democratic • Socialist Industrialization • Autarcky with Rural Mobilization • Corporate/ Fascist

  17. Ideology as Social Science

  18. The Public Sector and the Economy Reminder: Karl Marx- The Other German- Source of ideas about the developmental state. Marx as a Social Scientist not an Ideologue. The contemporary of Max Weber

  19. Marx with his Wife Jenny (1869) and with Friedrich Engels and Family (1864)

  20. Karl Marx: Another Five Minutes a.. Original Marxian views- State as the instrument of the ruling classes b. The dialectic and Historical Materialism c. Model: (John Armstrong- The Conservative Marxist) -Thesis -Antithesis -Synthesis

  21. Dialectic ThesisAntithesis Synthesis

  22. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov(Lenin)(April 221870  – January 21, 1924)

  23. Class Conflict: Four Epochs Slavery Feudalism Capitalism Socialism (National Socialism?) e. Functionaries as the petty bourgeoisie • Communism- state and the bureaucracy whither away • Fascism- Society will Whither Away

  24. Fascism and Italy VIDEO The Banality of Authoritarianism

  25. Command Economy- Revised by Keynes and Franklin D. Roosevelt • Under socialism, government, the bureaucracy should manage the economy • The development of an elaborate national planning system • Keynes- Failure of market • European Social Democracy

  26. Command Economy • The debate: Keynesianism and European Socialism (the Rose)- How much is this part of Command Economy Framework? (Guy Peters) • Development Administration: Command Economics in the Third World? (Heady, Riggs vs. Vincent and Eleanor Ostrom) • Development Management: An Oxymoron

  27. 3. The European Model, North Atlantic Unity and Japan • Focus on the State Economic System • Collectivist vs. Individualist Approach • Europe vs. Anglo-Saxon • Debates about Groups: Competitive vs. Cooperative (Corporatist)

  28. Continental Europe • Counter-influence of St. Simonism- an interventionist view (Not Adam Smith). • “the era of abundance could be attained certainly and quickly. The guaranteed means were applications of science and technology to unrestricted mastery of nature.” Count de Saint-Simon 1760-1825

  29. Count Henri de Saint-simon

  30. Does This Help?

  31. Social Democracy: Debate • The Rose as a Symbol • Socialism and the Rise of Labor in Europe • The Second International • All European Countries have a Social Democratic Party (The Second International)

  32. American Activism vs. European Socialism (U.S. Social Democratic Party)

  33. Unification of the North Atlantic- 1930s-1970s- The Primacy of Keynesianism 1. Monetary Policy 2. Fiscal Policy 3. Wage and Price controls

  34. “We’re All Keynesians Now”Friday, Dec. 31, 1965

  35. The Functions of Government under Keynesian Control 1. Traditional- police and law and order 2. National Defense 3. Social Services- Education and Health and Welfare 4. Resource Mobilization

  36. The Functions of Government under Keynesian Control- Continued 6. Economic Growth generation: From Roosevelt and the New Deal to Kennedy and Johnson, The Great Society 6. LDCs and Modernization Theory: Agraria vs. Industria (Turner and Holm) 7.The challenge of Public Choice, rationalism and the University of Chicago School: Neo-Orthodoxy- less influence outside of the Anglo-Saxon world

  37. Summary: Debate over the Economy 1. The International Contemporary State: Continental Europe vs. the U.S. or the U.K. 2. Adam Smith, "the hidden hand" and Classical Economics- An Anglo-Saxon View esp. USA 3. Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union: Command Economy (whole or part): Images of the Cold War- A Propaganda Film- VIDEO Eastern Europe Was Not Social Democratic

  38. Breaktime Ten Minute Break

  39. The Development Model • Modernization Theory • State as Development Manager • Industrialization vs. Rural Development • The Take Off Point: Capital Accumulation

  40. Conceptual: Agraria vs. Industria

  41. Japan and Economic DevelopmentChalmers JohnsonAuthor of the Week

  42. Japan and Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) • Asian Model • Corporatist- Inter-meshing of state and Private Sector • Management (not Political) Focus • Growth and Export • Model for Asian Tigers

  43. Legacy: Ministry of International Trade and Industry (in Asia) Block 10, Government Offices Complex, Jalan Duta,50622 KL, MalaysiaTel no: 603-6203 3022Fax no: 603-6201 2337Email:webmiti@miti.gov.my

  44. 4. Neo-Orthodoxy. Rejection of Keynes

  45. Prologue: Two Views of Government: • "There are several ways in which the government has influenced the structure of Japan's special institutions."[1] • "What is lawful and therefore is unlawful, depends on the culture and the country in question."[2] [1] Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982), p. 14. [2] Robert Klitgaard, Controlling Corruption (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), p. 3.

  46. It Starts with Adam SmithJune 5, 1723 – July 17, 1790

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