Protons for BreakfastDo we need Nuclear PowerWeek 6 December2011
Mateusz Szymanski Neelaksh Sadhoo Paul Carroll Peter Benson Peter EDMEAD Peter Quested Peter Woolliams Pippa Goldenberg Rainer Winkler Ralf Mouthaan Robert Goddard Ruth Montgomery Sharmila Hanson Stephanie Bell Sue Gibbons Tim Burnett Who is helping? James Miall Jane Burston Jeff Flowers Jenny Wilkinson Jian Wang Joanna Lee John Gallop John Makepeace John Mountford Jonathan Pearce Jordan Tompkins Joseph Thom Laurie Winkless Lindsay Chapman Lloyd England Louise Brown Maria Lodeiro Andrew Hanson Andy Knott Arzu Arinc Averil Horton Bufa Zhang Clare Lee Clare Matthews David Clay Deborah Lea Edward Brightman Elena Amico di Meane Emma Woolliams Gareth Hinds Gianluca Memoli Jacquie Elkin James Claverley
Electricity generation in the UK • How is electricity generated? • How much electricity does the UK need ? • Where does it come from? • Nuclear Power Stations are due for closure • How to replace the lost generating capacity? • Nuclear Power • Radioactivity & Nuclear Fission • Pros and Cons Does Britian need nuclear power?
Electricity Eeeee - lec- tric-ity How is electricity generated?
How is electricity generated? (1) Only ‘solar’ power is renewable & sustainable 0.01 % of solar energy would meet all energy demands
While the station powers up… • Please take 10 minutes to fill out the forms. • This helps us decide what to change and what to keep the same Ticking the boxes is important, butyour comments are especially valuable.
How much electricity do we need? A family home Nationally Average ~1 kilowatt (kW) ~24 kWh per day Peak~5 kilowatt (kW) Average ~40 gigawatt (GW) ~1 TWh per day Peak~60 gigawatt (GW) × 40 million =
Electricity Generation in UKDaily variations in 2001/2002 gigawatt (GW) billion watts =109 W = 1000000000 W =10 Million Light bulbs
Electricity Demand 2001-2009 Mmmm. Looks near to 60 GW peak demand!
How do we meet this demand? Energy Consumption Right Now!
Daily Variation in Supply Source Other Imports Power (GW) Typical Winter Demand Thursday 6th December 2001 50 40 Coal 30 20 Gas (Combined Cycle) 10 Nuclear 0 0:00 6:00 12:00 18:00 24:00 Time of Day
Evolution of Supply Sources Gas (Combined Cycle) Coal Nuclear
UK Nuclear CapacityHistory and Future Energy Gap?
What will happen in the future? • No shortage of coal and gas • See BP Energy Review • Cost? • Security of supply? • Renewables will increase • but by how much? • Nuclear will decline
Electricity Generation in UK: 3 Options: Total Capacity kept constant = 330 TWh
‘Concerned ‘of Tedddington • I hate nuclear Power! Couldn’t we… • Reduce Demand • Use More Wind • Store some energy • Install Solar PV Panels • Exploit Tidal Power • Make Nuclear Fusion work?
Reduce ElectricityDemand • My family’s electricity usage for the last four years • Can we force people and businesses to use less? • Price • Rationing 2000 kWh 20% reduction £260 a year
Electricity Usage in UK 2004 Universal use of CF light bulbs will eliminate the need for 1 large power station Lighting • Several easy wins
UK Wind Divide numbers by 3 to get average power Some of the best sites in Europe 18 GW target
Wind has problems of • availability • variability 18 GW!!!! • 10,000 of the largest turbines • Sometimes No Power at all! • Sometimes 18 GW ! • Average power ~6 GW 6 GW Back Up
The National Grid • Electricity needs to be generated atexactlythe time it is needed. • Storage is possible, but difficult: • Variabilitylimits likely maximum wind contribution to about… • 10%? Yes • 20%? Arguably • 30%? Unlikely Photo Credit Spencer Jarvis
Pumped Storage 0 to 1.3 GW in 12 seconds
Solar Photo Voltaic • 9 m2 • Twickenham
Solar Photo Voltaic • Average: 3.5 kWh/day (1277.5 kWh/year) • Saving: 3.5 x 13 pence per kWh = 46 p/day (£166 / year) • Cost in: 2005: £9000 • Return on investment: 1.8 % PLUS GOVERNMENT CASHBACK! £0.43 for every unit fed back to the grid! PLUS GOVERNMENT CASHBACK! £0.21 for every unit fed back to the grid! Return on Investment 8.1% TAX FREE
Severn Tidal Barrage Could generate 10% of UK demand 5 GW £15B
How are atoms made? Electrical Repulsion proton Interact by the short range ‘strong’ force – not electrical
Nuclear FusionWhat is it? deuterium nucleus 100,000,000 ºC 1,000,000 ºC 10,000 ºC neutron proton
Fusion JET http://www.jet.efda.org/ ITER http://www.iter.org/ Probability of Success by 2025… ????25%???? Probability of Engineering Feasibility by 2100… ???? 5%????
The UK is committed to 34% reduction in CO2 emission by 2020 Nuclear PowerThe UK Context The UK is committed to 80% reduction in CO2 emission by 2050 Sustainable and diverse supplies are more secure 11 GW of Carbon Free Generating Capacity will retire in the next 15 years RenewablesAND Nuclear Renewables versus Nuclear Energy costs likely to rise in long term
‘Concerned ‘of Tedddington Mmmm… So all these things can help, but there is still a problem O.K. Tell me about Nuclear Power!
To understand nuclear power and how it works we first need to understand about Radioactivity
Some radioactive things… Detectors Cloud Chamber Supermarket Radioactivity
Remember this… Electricity ‘Nuclear’ refersto the nucleusof atoms Atoms Heat Electromagnetic waves
What is Radioactivity? • Normally nuclei act as heavy point-like centres for atoms • More than 99.9% of the mass of every atom is made of nuclear matter • More than 99.9% of the mass of your breakfast is made of nuclear matter Nucleus
Protons & neutrons The number of protons (+) in the nucleus determines the number of electrons(-) required to make the atom neutral Determines the chemical and physical properties of the atom But the number of neutrons in a nucleus can vary.
Example 39K, 40K and 41K 0.01% • Radioactive Same number of protons Different numbers of neutrons • Potassium is 2.4% of the Earth’s crust • Natural potassium (symbol K) has three isotopes