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Protons for Breakfast Electricity Week 1

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Protons for Breakfast Electricity Week 1

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  1. Protons for BreakfastElectricityWeek 1 February 2014

  2. In the event of an alarm sounding…

  3. Toilets…

  4. Parents and children…

  5. The plan for the evening… Feedback More talk Walkabout 8:59 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. 8:30 p.m. to 8:59 p.m. 8:00 p.m. to 8:29 p.m. Talk 7:00 p.m. to 7:59 p.m.

  6. Nadia Smith Nori Safi Paul Carroll Paul Green Peter Nisbet-Jones Peter Quested Peter Woolliams Rainer Winkler Ralf Mouthaan Robert Goddard Ruth Pearce Sharmila Hanson Stephanie Bell Subrena Harris Sue Oakley Tracey Skinner Who is helping? Jessica Cross Brown John Gallop John Makepeace John Mountford Jonathan Pearce Jordan Tompkins Joseph Thom Kate Wilkinson Lauren Petrie Laurie Winkless Leigh Stanger Lindsay Chapman Lloyd England Louise Brown Maria Lodeiro Marieke Beckmann Marta Doval Minarro Amir Kayani Andrew Hanson Andy Knott Averil Horton Claire Greenwell Dale Partridge David Clay Deborah Lea Edward Brightman Gianluca Memoli James Claverley James Miall Jane Burston Jeff Flowers Jenny Hully Jenny Wilkinson

  7. Michael de Podesta Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire! Age 54: Weight 84 kg • Lecturer in Physics at University of London for 13 years • Understanding the Properties of Matter • At NPL for 14 years. • Most accurate thermometer ever made! • International Surface Temperature Initiative • Married with two sons(aged 15 & 17) • Keen on Water Rockets

  8. Why am I here? I am here because I believe … Science is humanity’s greatest achievement

  9. Why are you here? • Accompanying Grandmother. • To support my daughter who is also attending • Always had an interest in science • My son loves science • I enjoy science and like learning about how the world works. • Made to come by parent. • Because I'm very interested and I will help me with my science, because I'm not that good • So I can teach it to secondary school-aged kids • To improve my knowledge in physics and to make it accessible to students. I appreciate the significance of science in our world, but am profoundly ignorant of how stuff - like electricity - actually works

  10. …there is a problem about how we, as citizens, relate to science…

  11. The image of science:1Mad Muppets top cult science poll Dr Honeydew is known the world over for his disastrous research at Muppet Labs, "where the future is being made today". His experiments invariably go awry, with poor old Beaker usually being blown to bits or electrocuted. BBC 6/9/2004

  12. The image of science:2Science Gone Wrong What! BANG! The final touch… Alex Noble (Age 9)

  13. The image of science:3An un-scientific experiment Scientist ……… Scientist

  14. In contrast… • A room full of people who want to learn about science • Helped by volunteers • In a world where ignorance makes us powerless

  15. Tonight’s talk • The scale and size of the Universe • Electricity • How Electricity works • Atoms • Light

  16. Tonight’s talk The scale and size of the Universe or ‘How not to be boggled!’

  17. You amazing! are

  18. Distances • From 0.1 mm to 1000 m • Less than 0.1 mm • More than 1000 mm • Weights • From 1 g to 100 kg • Less than 1 g More than 100 kg Time • 0.1 s to 300 million s • Less than 0.1 s • More than 300 million s Temperature • From 10 ºC to 45 ºC • Less than 10 ºC • More than 45 ºC

  19. Measuring instruments extend our senses imperceptible vast ? ? Science helps us extend our senses But we can still feel boggled!

  20. The Planet Earth Diameter: 12,800 km Deepest hole: 10 km Atmosphere: 10 km Photo Credit: NASA

  21. The Moon Diameter Earth: 12,800 km Moon: 3476 km Photo Credit: NASA

  22. The Sun Earth Diameter: 1,390,800 km Photo Credit: NASA

  23. Powers of Ten I hope that you are now a little unsettled and ready to go on a 9 minute journey to see how the world looks at different levels of ‘fantasy magnification’ Photo Credit: Powers of 10

  24. Powers of Ten (1) 1 metre 1000000000000 m Very Very Small Very Very Large 0.001 m 1000000000 m 0.000000001 m 0.000001 m 1000000 m 1000 m Can you see the problem with very small and very large numbers?

  25. Powers of Ten (2) 1 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 1030 1036 Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 1021 1027 1033 100 0.000001 10-6 1000000 106 1012 10-3 0.001 1000 103 109 1015

  26. Powers of Ten (3) 1 metre 1000000000000 m 0.000000000001 m 10-18 10-12 1012 Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 1018 1024 10-6 106 1012 1030 1036 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033

  27. Powers of TenLength Scale in metres Diameter of a hair Diameter of the Earth Distance to the Sun Current estimate of the size of the universe Microbes Viruses Human Relationships Quarks 100 Nucleiof atoms Atoms & molecules Nanotechnology Tallest Mountain Nearest Star Light Year 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 106 1012 1030 1036 ? Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033

  28. Powers of TenLength Scale in metres Diameter of a hair Diameter of the Earth Distance to the Sun Current estimate of the size of the universe Microbes Viruses What goes on here? String Theory M-Branes ???????? ? ? Human Relationships Quarks 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106 1012 1030 1036 10-36 10-30 10-24 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033 10-33 10-27 10-21 Nucleiof atoms Atoms & molecules Large Hadron Collider Nanotechnology Tallest Mountain Nearest Star Light Year Large Hadron Collider

  29. Powers of TenGlobal Warming Diameter of the Earth Distance to the Sun Microbes Atoms & molecules Tallest Mountain Human Relationships 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106 1012 1030 1036 Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033 The phenomenon of global warming involves physical processes with length scales spanning 20 powers of 10!

  30. Powers of TenNuclear Power Diameter of the Earth Distance to the Sun Microbes Human Relationships Nucleiof atoms Atoms & molecules 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106 1012 1030 1036 Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033 The issues surrounding nuclear power involve physical processes with length scales spanning 25 powers of 10! Tallest Mountain

  31. Powers of Ten (time)Time scale in seconds 1 second Earth moves once around the Sun Estimated time since the big bang Light wave wiggles once Time for a molecule to jiggle once Fastest response of human eye Sound travels 1 metre A human lifetime Lifetime of a Civilisation End of last ice age Age of the Earth 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106 1012 Very Very short Very Very Long 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021

  32. The Universe • Its very big, but full of very small things ? ?

  33. Tonight’s talk • The scale and size of the Universe • Its very big, but full of very small things • Electricity • How it works • Atoms • Light

  34. How it all fits together… Electricity Atoms Heat Electromagnetic waves

  35. Eeeee - lec- tric-ity Electricity

  36. Electricity Some experiments…

  37. Lets take a look at some odd phenomena… • A balloon and a piece of paper

  38. Lets take a look at some odd phenomena… • If I balance my glasses carefully…

  39. Even a sausage… • Sausages…

  40. …its everything… The balloon affects anything and everything nearby To understand this, we need to understand • what matter is made of, and • how this ‘influence’ is communicated across ‘space’

  41. A simple scientific instrument: The gold leaf electroscope • Scientists can develop instruments to measure the relative strengths of the ‘electric influence’ • Based on the same effect we saw with bits of paper

  42. The Van de Graaff Generator • Scientists can develop machines to automate and amplify the ‘rubbing’ process with the balloon Photo Credits: Katherine Robinson and MIT

  43. The Van de Graaff Generator It is not important to understand how a Van de Graaff generator works PictureCredits: http://www.ikp.uni-koeln.de/~3T/tandem-prinzip1.htmlhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/vdg1.htm

  44. The Van de Graaff Generator It is not important to understand how a Van de Graaff generator works

  45. The Wimshurst Machine Sorry: I cannot explain how a Wimshurst Machine works! Photo Credits: Wikipedia andhttp://www.coe.ufrj.br/~acmq/electrostatic.html

  46. Electrostatic Generators • People have been doing this for a long time… Photo Credits: http://www.ikp.uni-koeln.de/~3T/tandem-prinzip1.html

  47. Conclusion… Electricity is present inside ALL matter Its ‘influence’ can be communicated across ‘empty’ space

  48. Tonight’s talk • The scale and size of the Universe • Its very big, but full of very small things • Electricity • It’s everywhere! • How it works • Atoms • Light

  49. How do we describe the world? Not Stuff • the gaps in between matter • fields • Stuff • matter

  50. How do we describe the world?