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PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTAN Badakhshan PowerPoint Presentation
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PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTAN Badakhshan

PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTAN Badakhshan

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PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTAN Badakhshan

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  1. PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTANBadakhshan

  2. OVERVIEW • Module introduces you to Badakhshan • Emphasis on: • Geography & topography • Human terrain • Recent history • Economics • Security situation • Politics • Districts

  3. BLOCK 1: GEOGRAPHY

  4. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY • Location: NE Afghanistan • Area: 15,786 sq miles • 47,403 sq km • Terrain: • 90% mountainous • …including High Pamirs • Numerous peaks over 20,000 feet • Amu Darya watershed • Few all-weather roads

  5. Panj River SefidKers Jaman Pass (Tajikistan) QalaPanja Pass Panj River Pamir River Turghan Pass Wakhan Mountains Khvajeh Mohamed Range WakhjirJavan Pass (Into China) Baroghil Pass (Into Pakistan) Monjani River Anjoman Pass Hindu Kush Range Dora Pass

  6. FLORA • Deforestation from 1980s to present • Little or no erosion controls in place • Flash flooding problems • Temperate grasslands, savannahs • Gissaro-Alai woodlands along Pamir River • Common plants: • Pistachio • Almond • Walnut • Apple • Juniper • Sagebrush

  7. FLORA • Montane grasslands & shrublands • Hindu Kush alpine meadows • Northern and southwestern regions • Meadows and birch forests • Karakorum-West Tibetan alpine steppe • Wakhan Corridor • Pamir alpine meadow and desert

  8. FLORA • Desert and Xeric shrublands • Afghan mountains semi-desert • South of Fayzabad • Common plants: • Thorny bushes • Zizyphus • Acacia • Amygdatus

  9. FLORA • Paropamisus xeric woodlands • Northwest and central Badakhshan • Common plants: • Pistachio • Almond • Willows • Sea buckthorn

  10. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY • Strategic borders: • Pakistan • China • Tajikistan • 1896: border settled with Russia • Capital:Faizabad, Fayzabad • Estimated population: 61,000 • Districts: 28 • Number of villages: 1,851

  11. TAJIKISTAN CHINA Takhar Fayzabad Wakhan Mountains PAKISTAN Panjshir Nuristan

  12. BLOCK 2: HUMAN TERRAIN

  13. HUMAN TERRAIN • Population: 819,000 • 96% rural • Avg household: 6 members • Male: 51%; Female: 49% • Ethnic composition: • Tajiks (majority) • Pamiris • Uzbeks

  14. HUMAN TERRAIN • Ethnicity (Cont’d): • Pockets of Ismai’lis along Tajik border • Some GhilzaiPashtuns, Kirghiz • Hazara, Turkmen • Kuchi nomads • Move into province in summer • 185,000 • Winter population: 9,500

  15. HUMAN TERRAIN • Religion: • Virtually all residents are Muslim • Sunni majority • Many Pamiris are Shi’a/Ismaili • Languages: • Dari (77%)

  16. HUMAN TERRAIN • Languages (Cont’d): • Various Pamiri dialects • Shughni • Munji • Ishkashimi • Wakhi • Uzbeki (12%) • <2% speak Turkmen, Pashto, Nuristani dialects

  17. POPULATION DATA

  18. ETHNIC BADAKHSHAN • Tajiks • Historically dominant • Partly based on tribes • Shaqany • Qharqhza • Zebaki • Sunni • Generally favor Jamiat-e Islamiparty

  19. ETHNIC BADAKHSHAN • Isma’ilis • Not really an ‘ethnicity’… • …but Muslim sect • Minority branch of Shi’a • Followers of Agha Khan • Predominate in Shighnan & Wakhan • Few once gravitated to Khalq, Maoists

  20. BLOCK 3: HISTORY

  21. HISTORY • Part of Sassanid Empire • Persians • Badaxs = official Persian title • Silk Road ran through here • Early East-West trade route • Marco Polo traveled through here Sassanid Empire

  22. HISTORY • 19th century: Great Game • British India vs Russia • Badakhshan in between • Explorers reconnoiter territory • 1896: Wakhan Corridor created • Badakhshan ‘panhandle’ • Given to Afghanistan • Buffer between Russia, British India

  23. MODERN HISTORY • November 1979: • Most of Badakhshan in insurgent hands • Fayzabad controlled by insurgents • Government, Soviets intervene • Fayzabad occupied Dec 1979 • Main Soviet garrison: Fayzabad • Rest of province in Muj hands • Remote Soviet bases supplied by helo

  24. MODERN HISTORY • 1982: Soviets blocked Anjoman Pass • Key insurgent logistics route • Jamiat-e Islamistronghold • Prominent leader: BurhanuddinRabbani • Originally from Feyzabad • President of Afghanistan in 1990s • Small HIG base in southern Badakhshan • Commander: Mohammed Bashir

  25. MODERN HISTORY • 1991: Muj capture most of province • 1990s: Northern Alliance stronghold • Never invaded/occupied by Taliban • Base for NA anti-Taliban operations

  26. BLOCK 4: ECONOMY

  27. ECONOMY -- Agriculture • Water access: • Household access to irrigated land: 42% • Household access to rain-fed land: 65% • Agriculture: • Income for 55%+ of households • 47% own or manage agricultural land

  28. ECONOMY -- Agriculture • Crops: • Wheat • Barley • Maize • Rice • Flax • Melons

  29. ECONOMY • Industrial crops: • Not as prevalent as in other provinces • Cotton • Sesame • Tobacco • Sugar • Poppies • Honey

  30. ECONOMY – Animal Husbandry Income for 21% of population Cattle Donkeys Sheep Goats Horses

  31. ECONOMY – Trade & Minerals • Trade & services: • 32%: income from trade & services • Mineral resources: • Lapis Lazuli • Silver • Copper • Iron • Lead deposits • Rubies • Emeralds

  32. DEVELOPMENT -- Education • Literacy rate: 31% • Highest provincial rate • Male literacy: 38% • Female literacy: 21% • Literacy – males ages 15-24: 46% • Literacy - females ages 15-24: 27%

  33. DEVELOPMENT -- Education • Kuchi literacy: <5% • Primary schools (boys): 336 • Primary schools (girls): 12 • Secondary schools (boys): 59 • Secondary schools (girls): 23 • School attendance: • Ages 6-13: 46% • Boys ages 6-13: 49% • Girls ages 6-13: 46%

  34. DEVELOPMENT -- Education • Education access: • Primary school in village: 25% • 5-10 km to primary school: 16% • 10+ km to primary school: 15% • Secondary school in village: 13% • 5-10 km to secondary school: 18% • 10+ km to secondary school: 28%

  35. DEVELOPMENT -- Education • Higher education: • University of Badakhshan • Faculty of Education • Faculty of Medicine • Total enrollment (2005): 223 • 52% of students were female in 2005 • Badakhshan Teacher Training Institute • Enrolled 357 students in 2005

  36. DEVELOPMENT – Health Care • (As of 2005) • Health centers: 33 • Of 1,851 villages only 56 have clinics • 5-10 km to reach clinic: 16% • 10+ km to reach clinic: 50% • Hospitals: 2 • Doctors: 36 • Nurses: 85 • Pharmacies: 120

  37. DEVELOPMENT – Water • Drinking water: • Access to safe drinking water: 13% • Direct access to drinking water in community: 68% • Travel up to 1 hour to access drinking water: 16% • Travel up to 6 hours to access drinking water: 12%

  38. DEVELOPMENT – Sewage • Toilet facilities: • None (open bush/field): 14% • Open pit: 27% • Traditional covered latrine: 55% • Flush latrine: <1%

  39. DEVELOPMENT – Electricity & Roads • Electricity access: • Around 1% have access to electricity • Transport: • Roads for all-season car traffic: 25% • Roads for seasonal car traffic: 18% • No roads: 57%

  40. DEVELOPMENT DATA • 40% get less than needed daily calories for good health • 70% have little or no dietary diversity • In 2005 24% relied on food aid Problems Satisfying Food Need of the Household During Last Year

  41. BLOCK 5: POLITICS

  42. FORMAL POLITICAL SYSTEM • Kabul has the power – by design • Intended to throttle back warlords • As a consequence: • Governor appointed by President • Governor reports to President • Ministries maintain local departments • Departments report to Kabul not Governor • Elected Provincial Council reports to President

  43. BADAKHSHAN: Governor • Dr. Shah WaliullahAdeeb • Born: 1969 in Badakhshan • Ethnicity: Tajik • Education: • High school in Peshawar • Masters and PhD from Khartoum University • Appointed: 31 October 2010 • Escaped assassination June 2011

  44. BADAKHSHAN: Governor • Dr. Shah WaliullahAdeeb • Member of Jamiat-e Islami • Close to BurhanuddinRabbani • Former President of Afghanistan • Assassinated 2011 • Previous assignments: • Ministry of Education • World Bank, Kabul • Professor, Kabul University

  45. BurhanuddinRabbani • Assassinated 2011 • Born in Faizabad, 1940 • Ethnicity: Tajik • Education: • Faculty of Shari’a, Kabul U • Al-Azhar, Cairo, mid-1960s • Professor of Sharia, Kabul U • Founder of Jamiat-e IslamiParty • President of Afghanistan, 1990s

  46. SALAHUDDIN RABBANI • Eldest son of Burhanuddin • Third of ten children • Education: • King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals • Dhahran – 1989-1995 • Several years in Dubai in export business • Spent many years in UK • Wife is dental hygienist • Returned to Afghanistan, 9/15/01