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Cells, Chemicals & Activities

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Cells, Chemicals & Activities

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  1. Cells, Chemicals & Activities OCS Biology Mrs. Bonifay

  2. Chemicals • Living things are alike because: 1. they are composed of cells. 2. they have similar chemicals. • These chemicals include: 1. water. 2. carbohydrates. 3. fats. 4. proteins. 5. minerals. 6. vitamins. 7. nutrients

  3. WATER • Life cannot exist without water. • Water makes up about 2/3’s of a cell’s weight. • Special properties of water allow it to break down things into tiny particles. • When water and these particles are evenly mixed, it is called a solution. • Your bodily fluids and liquids in your cells are not pure water; they are a solution of many salts, water, and other chemicals.

  4. CARBOHYDRATES • Carbohydrates are sugars and starches. • Living things use carbohydrates for energy. • Plants use the energy from sunlight to make carbohydrates from carbondioxide and water. • Animals get energy from the carbohydrates made by plants.

  5. FATS • Fats store large amounts of energy that are released when they are broken down. • Of all the chemicals important for life, fats contain the most energy.

  6. PROTEINS • Proteins also provide energy for living things. • Proteins have other important functions: 1. They help to repair damaged cells and build new ones. 2. They help control body activities such as heart rate and breaking down food. • Proteins are made up of smaller molecules called amino acids. • There are 20 different amino acids that can be arranged in different ways to make different proteins. Proteins with different shapes have different functions.

  7. MINERALS, VITAMINS, & NUTRIENTS • Minerals and vitamins are needed by living things in small amounts. • Nutrients are any chemicals found in foods that are needed by living things. • Nutrients include minerals and vitamins.

  8. ACTIVITIES • Getting food: 1. Animals get food by eating plants or other animals. 2. Plants make their own food. • Digestion breaks down food into chemicals that cells can use. • During respiration, cells release the energy that is stored in chemicals. • The removal of wastes from living things is excretion.

  9. MORE ACTIVITIES • Movement in plants and animals is outside and inside living things. Materials inside plants and animals are in constant motion. • Animals and plants have tissues and organs that sense signals from their surroundings. Example: Many flowers open in the morning light and close when darkness comes. • The ability of living things to keep their internal conditions is called homeostasis. An example of this is your body maintaining a “normal” temperature range around 98.6 degrees. • Another activity that living things do is growing. • Development happens as living things grow.

  10. Reproduction • Reproduction is the process by which living things produce offspring. • Different types of reproduction: 1. Bacteria reproduce by dividing in two. 2. In other living things (humans, for example), reproduction needs two parents. • Offspring of living things resemble their parent or parents.