May 22, 2012 • Objectives: To develop an understanding of the history of Iraq and it’s relations with other countries in the Middle East and the U.S. • Question: From your readings yesterday on “The Wall,” from what point of view did the personal accounts seem to be? • Get out your notes
Iraq: Facts • Population 17.9 million (1991 estimate) • Language: Official language is Arabic (spoken by about 80% of population; 15% speak Kurdish) • Religion: Sunni (Iraq’s regime) and Shia (more conservative) Islam (95%) • Ethnic groups: Arab (72%), Kurds (23%), the Kurds are mainly based on the north and the north-west of the country
Recent History King Faisal I (1885-1933) • 1920 – Placed under a League of Nations’ mandate, administered by Great Britain • Provided the country with a constitution and a bicameral legislature. • Put in place King Faisal I • A 25 year Treaty of Alliance was signed • On October 3, 1932, the British mandate ended and Iraq was established as an independent state. • British retained military bases and continued to exercise strong political and military influence in the country. • The Iraq Petroleum Company was a conglomerate of British, French and U.S. interests.
Recent History King Ghazi I (1912-1939) King Faisal II (1935-1958) • King Faisal I died in 1933 but the regimes under King Ghazi I (son) and King Faisal II (grandson) continued to be pro-British. • The Baghdad Pact was signed in 1955, which was an agreement on collective regional security, urged upon Iraq by the British.
Revolution Abdul-Karim Kassem (1914-1963) Abdul Salam Arif (1921-1966) Abdul Rahman Arif (1918-) • A military revolution overthrew King Faisal II on 14 July 1958, and a left-wing nationalist regime under the leadership of Brigadier Abdul-Karim Kassem came to power. • Iraq withdrew from the Baghdad Pact in 1959. • Kassem was assassinated in 1963. • A bloody and violent Ba'thist Arab nationalist regime under Colonel Abdul Salem Arif resulted. • He was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif in 1966.
The Ba'athist Revolution of 1968 • The foundations of the modern regime in Iraq were laid with the seizure of power by the Arab Renaissance (Ba'ath) Socialist Party on July 17 1968. • Major General Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr became President and Prime Minister of Iraq, his deputy was Saddam Hussein. • The regime undertook wide-ranging social and economic reforms to try and increase its popularity. • It nationalized the Iraqi Petroleum Company and was bolstered by rises in oil prices in 1972 and 1974, following the Arab-Israeli war. Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr (1914-1982)
The Kurds in Iraq • In March 1970 an agreement was reached between the government and the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP), over the establishment of an autonomous Kurdish area. • However, it quickly became clear that the promises made in this 'March Manifesto' would not be fulfilled. • Conflict broke out between the Kurds and government's armed forces in the spring of 1974. • The Kurds were supported by the Shah of Iran, who was concerned about what he saw as Soviet influence over the Iraqi regime.
The Kurds in Iraq • Jordanian intervention led to the signing of the Algiers Agreement between Iran and Iraq in March 1975. • Iran closed its border with Iraq which led to the collapse of the Kurdish military force. • Kurdish resistance was violently repressed, villages were destroyed and their inhabitants resettled in specially constructed villages surrounded by barbed wire and fortified posts.
The Rise of Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein (1937- ) • The economic strength of the regime in the late 1970s led to a concurrent rise in its political strength. • The Ba'ath party itself lost influence and real power was increasingly concentrated in the hands of Saddam Hussein and his political backers. • The party increasingly became an instrument of the state. • In July 1978 a decree was passed which made any non-Ba'thist political activity illegal and membership of any other political party punishable by death for all members or former members of the armed forces.
The Rise of Saddam Hussein • President Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr announced his resignation, and the handover of power to Saddam Hussein, on 16 July 1979. • Huge oil revenues enabled Saddam to spend large sums on welfare and building projects, and living standards improved due to the expanding economy. • Saddam Hussein concentrated on creating his own personality cult; portraits and statues of him were built all over the country. • The Republican Guard - the elite presidential security force - was also formed in this period.
Iran/Iraq War1980-1988 • War broke out because of Iraq’s invasion of the Khuzestan (Southern)Territory of Iran. • Prior to this, Iran (Shia) was bombing Iraq and urged the Iraqi people (Shia Majority) to overthrow Saddam Hussein (Sunni). • Over the course of 8 years, over 1million people died as a result of the fighting between these two countries. • Who started it?
The conflict stems from events dated 637 A.D. • Arabs (Iraq) successfully invaded Persian (Iran) territory • As a result Persian’s converted to Islam, but viewed their conquerors as unsophisticated.
Persians • Arabs (Iraq) saw the Persians (Iran) as too effeminate. • Persians enjoyed fine wine, banquets and gardens. • This attitude never disappeared.
Causes for conflict in 1980 • Ownership of three tiny islands in the mouth of the Persian Gulf • Control of the Shatt Al-Arab • Political Ideology: Theocracy vs Dictatorship
Tiny Islands • Iran claimed ownership of the Islands based on historical record and in 1971 used force to take control of them from the United Arab Emirates. • Iraq denounced the action…
Shatt Al-Arab • Both Iraq and Iran struggled over control of a 127 mile waterway that connects the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf
Final 5 • What was the name of the political party that Saddam was a part of?
Iraq was ruled by Saddam Hussein a Sunni Muslim Saddam Hussein used force to gain compliance of the Sunni, Shia and Kurds living within the country (Dictatorship) Iran is a Theocracy (Rule by religion). In the late 1970’s the Shaw or King began to secularize the government and limit the authority of Imams. Politics
Iran Continued • The Shaw was overthrown by Ayatollah Khomeini (Sign of God) and encouraged Shia Muslims in Iraq to overthrow Saddam Hussein.
Flashpoint of War • Saddam believed that Iran could be easily defeated because of turmoil in leadership and invaded the southern region of Iran (Khuzestan) hoping that the Arabs in the region would rise up against the Ayatollah…
Advantage Iran • Large numbers of teenagers volunteered to fight. • Iraq asked for a cease-fire • Khomeini refused seeking to “Oust Saddam”
Advantage Iraq • USSR began to supplement Iraq’s Air Force and missile supply • In 1985 Iraq adopted a Total War Policy – Any and all targets are viable
Advantage Iraq • US normalizes relations with Iraq • Don Rumsfeld “Diplomatic relations have been restored in all but name.” • Who is that?
Article:Iran Contra Affair Iran-Contra Affair • Who were the Contra’s? • What did the Boland Amendment enforce? • What order did NSA McFarlane receive from President Regan? • What does covert and embargo mean? • How do the Contra’s in Nicaragua connect to the war in the Middle East? • What were the Tower Commissions findings?
Iraq USSR (Supplies) France (Supplies) Kuwait (Money) Iran “Making the Gulf safe for everyone or no one” China (Supplies) USA (Secretly) War Becomes International
Italy sent mine sweepers to clear the gulf from Iran’s Deployment of floating mines.
UN Resolution 598 (1987) • Immediate cease fire • Reestablish pre-war boundaries • Full prisoner exchange • Further negotiations with UN.
The Iran/Iraq War • Relations with Iran seriously deteriorated in the period following the Iranian Islamic revolution of 1979. • Cross-border incidents resulted in Iraq invading Iran and in a full outbreak of war on 22 September 1980. • Massive losses were experienced by both sides and in 1986 a stalemate was reached. • Iraq was supported by its Arab neighbors, particularly Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, and by the US, the Soviet Union and France.
The Iran/Iraq War • The UN Security Council passed Resolution 598, calling for an end to the war, on 20 July 1987. • It was not accepted by Iran, who launched a further attack on northern Iraq in the spring of 1988. • The Iraqi air force responded with poison gas, causing 5,000 civilian deaths in Kurdish northern Iraq. • Iran finally agreed to a cease-fire in July 1988.
The Iran/Iraq War • The Iran/Iraq war resulted in an estimated 400,000 deaths (roughly 1/4 Iraqi and 3/4 Iranian), and around 750,000 people were injured. • Despite large foreign debts and damaged infrastructure, the Iraqi regime was actually strengthened militarily by the war with Iran. • Military production had increased significantly, and the army had also increased in size, to a total force of around one million. This consolidated Saddam Hussein's grip on power.
The Gulf War • By the late 1980s Iraq was experiencing an economic crisis, largely caused by misguided economic reforms. • $5 billion a year had been allocated to military re-armament projects. • Inflation and the cost of living were rising dramatically. • Iraq's relations with its neighbors declined, particularly when Saddam laid claim to the Rumaila oilfield that ran from Iraq into northern Kuwait.
The Gulf War • On August 2, 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. On August 8 Iraq announced its annexation of Kuwait. • The UN Security Council quickly passed a series of resolutions condemning Iraq's actions. • Murders and abuses of Kuwaitis by Iraqi troops were prevalent. • Iraq was backed politically by the PLO, and also, rather hesitantly, by Jordan. • Forces from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Morocco, Britain, France, Pakistan, Bangladesh and the US began gathering in Saudi Arabia. Iraq did not receive military support from any state.
The Gulf War • The UN Security Council passed Resolution 678, authorizing military force to be used against Iraq, at the end of November 1990. • On 17 January 1991, the allied forces began their aerial bombardment of Iraq. • The Iraqi army surrendered in large numbers on February 23 and 24. • The US declared a cease-fire on February 28 1991 and the Gulf War was over.
Post-Gulf War • Immediately after the Gulf War, the UN began carrying out its program of dismantling Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. • Weapons inspection teams were set up to make regular visits to Iraq to see that it was complying with the terms of the UN ceasefire resolutions.