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Key issues

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  1. Key issues • Why – objectives: CBM (in this case) but be clear on each stakeholder’s objectives • What is their involvement – level of participation identified and clear from the outset • Who is involved – Stakeholders identified and kind of participation agreed and clear • How – attitudes and behaviour, methods and process design

  2. How (to facilitate participation)? • Attitudes and behaviour √ • Methods – e.g. PRA/PLA tools • Good process

  3. Community steps Facilitation steps PLA tools

  4. Tools specific to CBRM • Traditional knowledge and management • Ecological knowledge • Monitoring plans

  5. Traditional and local knowledge • Kinds of traditional knowledge – useful for management? • Traditional management practices?

  6. Traditional knowledge for management List from participants

  7. Traditional knowledge for management List from participants • Stone wall trap (high tide / low tide) • Turtle harvest with yam harvest (VAN) • Bush rope for trapping fish • Tabu place (spirits) • Bamboo fishing rod • Kite fishing with spider web • Kura • Fishing net with coconut leaf • Bow and arrows • Spears • Fish poison – e.g. Tuva in gela • Surrounding fish with canoes • Rabbit fish migration (october) • “boneless” fish migration • Seasons for poisonous fish • Coral fish houses (FJ) • Smoking fish for preservation • Stone clappers to scare dolphins or rope and coconut shell • Flying fish netting • Mix of line and poly – Long Tom = local knowledge • Blacklip lure or bait for bonito

  8. Traditional knowledge for management List from previous participants • Fish seasonality • Tabu setting and demarcating • Tabu ecological function • Location of certain species in relation to time and weather • Feeding grounds • Fishing experts e.g. Gonedau • Methods sust and not • Times to set tabu • Special resource rights for particular people e.g Vanuatu for chiefs • Etc. etc etc

  9. Western scientific knowledge Ask participants to discuss and list the kinds of question that communities most often ask about their resources…

  10. Ways of presenting scientific/outside knowledge - Ideas? • Posters • Theatre • Group work and tools • Resource people • Key government or institutional contacts • Etc?

  11. Posters

  12. Video • Science of marine reserves

  13. Theatre • Wan Smol Bag

  14. Sell/ Consume Grouper Consume Juveniles Consume Corals Tiny organisms Group work tools • Group work • Divide into groups • Choose 2 marine resources • Draw the food pyramid for each resources.

  15. Local and outsider’s knowledge Matrix • Groups of 4 – one acts as facilitator • Brainstorm (check the definition of this tool) a list of the detailed types of information that communities may need to be able to plan management. • Discuss the list as a group, agree and decide priorities (use ranking if possible, beans are available). • Draw the following matrix

  16. Local and outsider’s knowledge

  17. Stakeholders • This covered in previous exercises • Communities should discuss and consider this – tools can include Venn diagram • Things to generate discussion on; • Who are the decision makers • Who are the resource users • Who are the implementers of any plans • Is the traditional mechanism working • Do any other mechanisms need to be introduced • Do any other bodies need to be started e.g. committees • Are women, marginal, silent and outside groups considered • What is a realistic role for government agencies

  18. Community steps Facilitation steps PLA tools

  19. How to reach a management plan • Problems – from maps, calendars, discussion etc. • Sort and prioritize problems: using Problem tree / root cause / direct-indirect causes tools • Action matrix / plan • Discuss, check stakeholders, consult and agree formally on plan and who does what and when…

  20. Problems • Make a full list of all the problems you have on your map and also ones you have heard from other groups

  21. Ranking • Ranking is used to encourage discussion and comparison of issues and their importance, if this is achieved then it is sufficient to gain a broad understanding of the relative importance of the different issues. • Ranking can be carried out in a number of ways but it is important that the facilitator and group not become too obsessed with obtaining a rank or score. • The criteria chosen to rank is most important. E.g. for a community plan one needs to choose criteria such as “what is the most important problem for the community to address” as otherwise problems that are totally beyond the control of the community may be chosen

  22. Problem ranking - example tools • Matrix and voting • Pairwise ranking • Indirect / direct causes (e.g. LMMA)

  23. Problem identification example

  24. Problem trees • To help participants find and agree the underlying causes of problems and examine the links between these root causes and their effects. This provides a basis for discussion of solutions in either this exercise or an action matrix. • Full description in Handout

  25. Fish for sale Financial problems Too much monetary obligations Too many fishing licences laiseni Coral harvesting Destructive fishing methods Few sources of income Uncaring by Community members Increase in population Overfishing

  26. Overfishing Too many fishing licences laiseni Coral harvesting Destructive fishing methods Fish for sale Too much monetary obligations Few sources of income Financial problems Increase in population Uncaring by Community members

  27. Problem trees • In your groups, produce a problem tree for the problem of “Lack of fish” or “overfishing” in the lagoon • Use the handout as guidance

  28. Community steps Facilitation steps PLA tools

  29. Action matrix / management plan • Examine the problem trees and think which root causes you may be able to do something about. • Select 1-2 and fill in the action plan as the following matrix

  30. Action matrix

  31. Community steps Facilitation steps PLA tools

  32. Tools for community resource management • Information of use to communities includes ways that other communities and countries have managed their resources • Many options can be considered but these need to be compared against the problems identified and the capacity to implement • E.g. no use choosing technical fixes that require substantial outside support

  33. Group work on management tools • Consult your handout and problem tree and discuss the list of 28 management options in the handout and suggest appropriate ones for Funafuti and your problem tree. • BUT – only select options that are FEASIBLE with minimum money or effort.

  34. Group work on designating closed marine areas • Consult the “tabu area” handout - Discuss and draw area or areas which might be good closed areas if you wanted to improve fishing.

  35. Other PLA tools • Extra tools if time allows or needed

  36. Methods Venn diagram Aim • To identify the important stakeholders and how they relate in order to provide the basis for discussions on who can be involved in putting plans into action and where relations could be improved. Process • Participants split into groups and brainstorm a list of possible stakeholders • Discuss the relative importance of each stakeholder to the community or the management of the resources. Based on this cut out a circle of paper or card proportional to the importance of the stakeholder and label it. The bigger the circle the more important the stakeholder. • Position the circles on butcher paper where the centre represents the community making sure that the distance of the circles from the centre reflects the amount of interaction that the stakeholder has with the community. Nearer is more interaction.

  37. Environment Department Forestry Department OISCA FLMMA Education HEALTHY MARINE ENVIRONMENT FIJIAN AFFAIRS FISHERIES HEALTH CHURCH Yavusa Chief YAVUSA Village Meeting Tourism HOTEL Venn - Stakeholders

  38. Methods Transect walk • Practical (see handout) or IIED video if too wet. • A transect is a cross section or straight route through a selected area which is followed by a team with the purpose of observing & recording information on the area’s natural environment, human use and management. In a relatively short time, transects allow communities to put forward their assessment of the state of habitats, record land use practices and generate a list of management issues. • Information collected along the transect include details on the environment (type of soil & habitat); human use (specific resource use for subsistence, cash, customs or spiritual use; known shortages or threats; community management ( existing rules on use of the area or resources and ideas for development which involve the site or resources present.

  39. Practical transect walk

  40. Queens Road Vunasivi Old saw mill Old playground (Naculava) Naibujubuju Forest Station Siliva i yata Example transect from Fiji

  41. Methods Historical profile / timeline • Do a simple example yourself of major educational and work events in your life. • Try another format, a diagonal line with crosses or ticks and the dates and events: 1995 1989 1982 KGVI Born kindy

  42. Pairwise ranking • Think of ways of doing ranking • Individual voting or beans, group voting or beans, others?? • See handout for pairwise ranking and try out in plenary using the following threats to fish catches: dynamite fishing, gill nets, outsiders poaching, broodstock overfished, rubbish in sea, traditional fish poison

  43. Attitudes and behaviour PRA/PLA Do’s and Don’ts • Take 2 slips of paper each • Read and make sure you understand – ask or check course materials if necessary • When trainer gives the word check the slips of as many of your colleagues as possible and compile a list in 6 minutes • The list must follow the format DO (or DON’T) … and then the text.