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Unit 8 Nature and Nurture

Unit 8 Nature and Nurture

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Unit 8 Nature and Nurture

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  1. Unit 8 Nature and Nurture

  2. Students will be able to: know something about Nature & Nurture; grasp the main idea and structure of the text; master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities centered upon the theme of the unit. Part One Teaching Objectives

  3. Task 1: Nature? – Spotting out the truth! Task 2: Nurture? – Why was Einstein so clever? Task 3: Explanation – Like father, like son? Task 4: Nature or Nurture? – Talking about twins Part Two Preparation

  4. Common sense and personal experience tend to suggest that nature and nurture are both important, each having a greater or lesser effect, depending both on the complexity of the gene and the conditions of the environment.

  5. Nature: everything a person inherits genetically Nurture: home environment; the parental influences on the children, e.g. family influence peer influence educational experiences Nature & Nurture

  6. Task 1Nature? Spotting out the truth! Directions: Decide which of the statements are scientifically correct. Your genes have a strong enough effect on your height for you to be able to predict what the adult height of your children should be if they are given a good diet. The need to wear glasses is not genetic. Most shortsightedness is caused by environmental influences such as using computers or reading a lots of small print. the percentage of body fat carried by a middle-aged woman is more determined by her genes than by diet or exercise. Your eating habits are governed by your genes. It would be as easy to change your dining habits as it would to change your breathing! Genes have great influence on our ability to withstand pain. This seems to be much less related to our experiences while we are growing up.

  7. Task 2 Nurture? Why was Einstein so clever? Listen to a passage about Einstein and answer questions: 1. Was there something special about Einstein’s brain? Scientists have found that the part of his brain that has to do with visual imaging and mathematical thinking was enlarged. 2. Are there any other factors that helped nurture this genius? Einstein had a very supportive and encouraging environment in which to grow up. Task 2

  8. Task 2Nurture! Genius without education is like silver in the mine. Benjamin Franklin 未受教育的天才,犹如矿中之银。 富兰克林 Genius only means hard-working all one's life . Mendeleyer 天才只意味着终身不懈的努力。 门捷列耶夫

  9. What does it mean? Agree or disagree, why? (explanation must last at least 1 minute.) Task 3 Explanation Like father, like son.

  10. Task 4 Nature or Nurture? Who are they?

  11. Task 3 Nature or Nurture? Talking about Twins As children twins are usually raised together and share a very similar environment as they grow up. But one third of all twins born share much more than this – identical twins have exactly the same genes. Non-identical twins have genes which are as different as any normal brother or sister but their environment as they are growing up is very similar. Identical twins who have grown up apart were shown to have very similar dining habits despite their different upbringings. They like to eat at the same time of day and felt full after the same about of food. One of the most striking and magical features of identical twins is their appearance. Even close family often find it difficult to tell them apart. Task 3

  12. Task 3 Nature or Nurture? Talking about Twins • Do you know any twins? What can you say about them? • Why are people curious about twins? • How do you think it feels to be twins? • what it must be like to grow up alongside a genetic copy of yourself ? Task 3

  13. Part Three Reading-centered Activities Twins, Genes, and Environment

  14. Introduction (Para. 1) Research on the relative effects of heredity and environment (Para. 2-8) Conclusion (Para. 9)

  15. gene heredity potential (born with), fate, predestination environment topic sentence No characteristic is caused exclusively by either environment or genes. Part 1 Introduction (para. 1)

  16. *The relative effects of heredity and environment on the development of the individual. Part 2 Research (Para. 2-8) remarkly alike in appearance & behaviour individuals with the same genes, when raised in the same environment, will respond to it in much the same way same same This doesn’t inform us the power of genes and the limitation of the effect of the environment psychological & physical likenesses same similar similarities in appearance differences in personality Genes alone are never absolutely responsible for any trait. same contrasting

  17. Topic sentence Genes: what we can do, what we will do Environment: what we actually do Part 3 Conclusion (para. 9)

  18. heredity(n.)(Line 1, Para. 1)& inheritance heredity (n.)[U] the passing on of physical or mental characteristics from parents to children遗传;遗传性 inheritance (n.)[U] inheriting 继承,遗传 or [C] what is inherited 遗产

  19. fate(n.)(Line 2, Para. 1)–predestination(n.)(Line 3, Para. 1) destiny [u] 命运 ; [C] 定数, 天命 work in a vacuum(Line 3, Para. 1) e.g. 1. His death left a vacuum in her life. 2. She used to vacuum the house every Sunday. 3. (idm) in a vacuum (n.) situation characterized by emptiness (v.) clean with a vacuum cleaner

  20. exclusively(adv.)(Line 6, Para. 1) exclusive(adj.) 1. excluding all but the thing specified 2. reserved for or limited to the person or group concerned identical (adj. no comp.) (Line 8, Para. 2) 1. ( + with / to) exactly alike 完全相同的,完全一样的 2. the same 同一的

  21. remarkably(adv.)(Line 8, Para. 2) remarkable (adj.) ~ (for sth.) worth noticing or unusual, exceptional e.g.a remarkable person a remarkable feat a remarkable event a remarkable book

  22. the subject of these studies (Line 14, Para. 3) physical environments (Line 15, Para. 3) the closest resemblance to (Line 16, Para. 3) on the whole(Line 18, Para. 3) infancy(n.)(Line 20, Para. 3) 1. state or period of being an infant, early childhood 2. early stage of development or growth * infant(n.)

  23. approximately(adv.)(Line 22, Para. 3) no more… than(Line 22-23, Para. 3) & no more than e.g. He is no more a God than us. Money is no more than our servant. substantially(Line 27, Para. 3) & substantial(Line 32, Para. 3) * substantial (adj.) 1.large in amount; considerable (Line 60, Para. 7) 大的,相当可观的 2. solid; strongly made 牢固的 3. noticeable; important; of some size or value

  24. illustrate(v.)(Line 32, Para. 4) –illustration (n.) adopt(v.) –foster (v.)(Line 36, Para. 4) Foster-brother adoptive parent come to an end (Line 51, Para. 6) resume(v.)(Line 51, Para. 6) 1. start doing something again after stopping or being interrupted 2. take or occupy sth. again

  25. “-hood” suffix (Line 55, Para. 7) distinguish(v.) (Line 57, Para. 7) 1. recognize the difference bet. (people or things) 2. be a characteristic mark or property of sb./sth., make sb./sth. different 3. hear, see, or recognize 4. distinguish oneself deserve to be noticed by doing sth. well *distinguished(adj.) * distinguishable(adj.)

  26. make the most of (Line 59, Para. 7) polish (Line 60, Para. 8) be liable to do sth.(Line 67, Para. 9) 有做…的倾向,易为 * be liable to sth. 易遭受 * be liable for sth. responsible according to law 应该 exhibit (Line 67, Para. 9)

  27. be remarkably alike The same physical environments ; the same nutritional histories Maintain the closest resemblance to each other in physical appearance The great psychological and physical likenesses between identical twins There were no more significant differences that A background similar to that of its own family The twins developed similarly There had been a greater difference The difference were more substantial In contrasting environments describing similarities and differences

  28. 这对双胞胎成长的自然环境几乎相同。 The twins were raised in much the same physical environments. 这对双胞胎在……方面及其相似。 The twins are remarkably alike in …. The twins maintain the closest resemblance to each other in …. ……时有例外。 Exceptions occurred when …. 双胞胎 / 一对双胞胎中的一个 / 两对双胞胎 / 同卵双胞胎 the twins / one twin / two sets of twins / identical twins

  29. 患了相当严重的疾病 develop a rather severe illness 相距甚远的两家 the two families far removed from each other 海伦充分利用了她外表的优势。 Helen made the most of her personal appearance. 海伦在社交中显得很从容、有修养。 Helen showed considerable polish and ease in social relationships.

  30. heredity be identical to resemble resemblance substantial resume distinguish be liable to exhibit Part Four vocabulary

  31. Some diseases develop because of the conditions one lives in; others are present by heredity. The color of our skin is due to heredity . Your voice is identical to your brothers. This is the identical hotel that we stayed in last year The identical twins resemble each other in appearance but not in character. There is a strong resemblancebetween the authentic work of Xu Beihong and the counterfeit To study abroad indicates to make substantial changes in life. Though young, he has substantially contributed to the project. Part Four Further Development

  32. He resumed his spirits and threw himself into the new work soon after the failure. Kindly resume your seats, ladies and gentlemen. He distinguished himself in the commercial negotiation with America He is easily distinguished by his uniform Human beings are liable to make mistakes under stress. She is liable to flu in winter Though not rich, he exhibited great concern for those homeless children and make whatever effort to help them. He will exhibit his paintings before the public in New York. Part Four Further Development

  33. 状语从句是英语从句中较为常见的从句类型之一,其类型多样,主要包括时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语从句、方式状语从句和比较状语从句等九大类型。对于这些从句以及翻译热点的了解,将有助于更好地进行状语从句的翻译。状语从句是英语从句中较为常见的从句类型之一,其类型多样,主要包括时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语从句、方式状语从句和比较状语从句等九大类型。对于这些从句以及翻译热点的了解,将有助于更好地进行状语从句的翻译。

  34. 1.时间状语从句 引导时间状语从句常见的词和词组有:when, whenever, as, while, before, after, until, till, since, ever since, now (that), once, so (as) long as, as soon as, every time, the moment, instantly, directly等。 Stormy applause broke forth in the audience the moment the singer stepped on the stage . 这名歌星一出现在舞台上,观众席中就响起暴风雨般的掌声。(倒译法)

  35. 2.地点状语从句 引导地点状语从句常见词和词组有:where, wherever等 Wherever a foreigner goes, he must do as the Romans do. 无论外国人到什么地方,他都应入乡随俗。

  36. 3.原因状语从句 引导原因状语从句常见的词和词组有:as, because, since, seeing (that), considering, now that, not that … but that …, in that …等。 He felt a bit anxious, not that the equipment did not operate smoothly, but that his subordinates neglected observance towards the discipline of safety. 他略感焦虑,不是因为设备不能正常运转,而是他的部下不遵守安全规章。

  37. 4.让步状语从句 引导让步状语从句常见的词和词组有:though, although, no matter, even if, even though, however, whatever等。 Granted that the children can not do things in the right way, the parents aren’t right in taking everything on themselves. 即使孩子做事的方式不对,父母也不该为其包办一切事务。

  38. 5.条件状语从句 引导条件状语从句常见的词和词组有:if, unless, suppose, supposing, in case, so (as) long as, so far as, on condition (that), provided (that)等。 Supposing (Suppose) the explorers can not get the food supply in time, all the team members will die in the desert. 假如探险队员无法及时得到食物,全体队员将死于沙漠。

  39. 6.目的状语从句 引导目的状语从句常见的词和词组有:that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case等。 The speaker worded his speech in a careful way that there might be no confusion to the listeners. 演讲者在演讲中措辞谨慎,以免造成听众的混淆。

  40. 7.结果状语从句 引导结果状语从句常见的词和词组有:that, so that, so … that …, such … that等。 The man was sorude towards his mother that all the standers-by were annoyed with his words and action. 那个男子对他母亲如此粗鲁,以至于路人都被他的言行惹恼。

  41. 8.比较状语从句 引导比较状语从句常见的词有:than, as等。 The film newly released to the public was much better than we had expected. 新近公映的电影比我们预期的要好得多。

  42. 9.方式状语从句 引导方式状语从句常见的词有: as等。 We must devote our whole life to the construction of our country just as we had pledged before the national flag. 我们应该像在国旗前宣誓的那样,将自己的一生贡献给祖国的建设事业。

  43. Assignment Directions: Write a composition on the topic: Which has a stronger influence, heredity or environment? Your composition should be no less than 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese: 1) 父母遗传很重要; 2) 后天环境影响起关键作用; 3) 我们是先天遗传与后天环境的综合产物。

  44. Which has a stronger influence, heredity or environment? Which is more important in shaping a person’s character, heredity or environment? First, let us examine the influence of heredity. A kind-hearted mother may expect a child who is also gentle and kind. An engineer father who used to get high marks in mathematics tests is very likely to have a son or daughter who is also good at math and plans to be an engineer, maybe because the child inherits the “math gene” from the father. Stubborn (顽固的) parents are likely to have children who are as hard to turn as a donkey (犟牛般的子女).

  45. However, the environment also plays a key role in molding many of a child’s characteristics. Environment can change a person no matter what one inherits from parents. Exercise, sports and good food, for example, can make a person grow taller and stronger, which explains the reason why young Chinese are obviously bigger and taller than their grandparents. Intelligent professionals’ children are not necessarily intelligent, so intelligence is not inherited. On the other hand, the son of a thief is not necessarily a thief.

  46. In conclusion, we are the product of nature and nurture. It is family, schools, and society that work together to shape who we are. Therefore, both heredity and environment have great influence on a person’s personality. Heredity creates a person, but environment can create an improved one.