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Chapter 8 - Cash Flows and Other Topics in Capital Budgeting

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Chapter 8 - Cash Flows and Other Topics in Capital Budgeting

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  1. Chapter 8 - Cash Flows and Other Topics in Capital Budgeting

  2. Capital Budgeting: The process of planning for purchases of long-termassets. For example: Our firm must decide whether to purchase a new plastic molding machine for $127,000. How do we decide? • Will the machine be profitable? • Will our firm earn a high rate of return on the investment? • The relevant project information follows:

  3. The cost of the new machine is $127,000. • Installation will cost $20,000. • $4,000 in net working capital will be needed at the time of installation. • The project will increase revenues by $85,000 per year, but operating costs will increase by 35% of the revenue increase. • Simplified straight line depreciation is used. • Class life is 5 years, and the firm is planning to keep the project for 5 years. • Salvage value at the end of year 5 will be $50,000. • 14% cost of capital; 34% marginal tax rate.

  4. Capital Budgeting Steps 1) Evaluate Cash Flows Look at all incremental cash flows occurring as a result of the project. • Initial outlay • Differential Cash Flowsover the life of the project (also referred to as annual cash flows). • Terminal Cash Flows

  5. . . . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n Capital Budgeting Steps 1) Evaluate Cash Flows

  6. . . . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n Capital Budgeting Steps 1) Evaluate Cash Flows Initial outlay

  7. . . . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n Capital Budgeting Steps 1) Evaluate Cash Flows Initial outlay Annual Cash Flows

  8. . . . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n Capital Budgeting Steps 1) Evaluate Cash Flows Terminal Cash flow Initial outlay Annual Cash Flows

  9. Capital Budgeting Steps 2)Evaluate the Risk of the Project • We’ll get to this in the next chapter. • For now, we’ll assume that the risk of the project is the same as the risk of the overall firm. • If we do this, we can use the firm’s cost of capital as the discount rate for capital investment projects.

  10. Capital Budgeting Steps 3) Accept or Reject the Project

  11. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows a) Initial Outlay: What is the cash flow at “time 0?” (Purchase price of the asset) + (shipping and installation costs) (Depreciable asset) + (Investment in working capital) + After-tax proceeds from sale of old asset Net Initial Outlay

  12. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows a) Initial Outlay: What is the cash flow at “time 0?” (127,000) + (shipping and installation costs) (Depreciable asset) + (Investment in working capital) + After-tax proceeds from sale of old asset Net Initial Outlay

  13. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows a) Initial Outlay: What is the cash flow at “time 0?” (127,000) + ( 20,000) (Depreciable asset) + (Investment in working capital) + After-tax proceeds from sale of old asset Net Initial Outlay

  14. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows a) Initial Outlay: What is the cash flow at “time 0?” (127,000) + ( 20,000) (147,000) + (Investment in working capital) + After-tax proceeds from sale of old asset Net Initial Outlay

  15. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows a) Initial Outlay: What is the cash flow at “time 0?” (127,000) + (20,000) (147,000) + (4,000) + After-tax proceeds from sale of old asset Net Initial Outlay

  16. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows a) Initial Outlay: What is the cash flow at “time 0?” (127,000) + (20,000) (147,000) + (4,000) + 0 Net Initial Outlay

  17. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows • a) Initial Outlay: What is the cash flow at “time 0?” (127,000) Purchase price of asset + (20,000) Shipping and installation (147,000) Depreciable asset + (4,000) Net working capital + 0 Proceeds from sale of old asset ($151,000) Net initial outlay

  18. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows a) Initial Outlay: What is the cash flow at “time 0?” (127,000) Purchase price of asset + (20,000) Shipping and installation (147,000) Depreciable asset + (4,000) Net working capital + 0 Proceeds from sale of old asset ($151,000) Net initial outlay

  19. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows b) Annual Cash Flows: What incremental cash flows occur over the life of the project?

  20. For Each Year, Calculate: Incremental revenue - Incremental costs - Depreciation on project Incremental earnings before taxes - Tax on incremental EBT Incremental earnings after taxes + Depreciation reversal Annual Cash Flow

  21. For Years 1 - 5: Incremental revenue - Incremental costs - Depreciation on project Incremental earnings before taxes - Tax on incremental EBT Incremental earnings after taxes + Depreciation reversal Annual Cash Flow

  22. For Years 1 - 5: 85,000 - Incremental costs - Depreciation on project Incremental earnings before taxes - Tax on incremental EBT Incremental earnings after taxes + Depreciation reversal Annual Cash Flow

  23. For Years 1 - 5: 85,000 (29,750) - Depreciation on project Incremental earnings before taxes - Tax on incremental EBT Incremental earnings after taxes + Depreciation reversal Annual Cash Flow

  24. For Years 1 - 5: 85,000 (29,750) (29,400) Incremental earnings before taxes - Tax on incremental EBT Incremental earnings after taxes + Depreciation reversal Annual Cash Flow

  25. For Years 1 - 5: 85,000 (29,750) (29,400) 25,850 - Tax on incremental EBT Incremental earnings after taxes + Depreciation reversal Annual Cash Flow

  26. For Years 1 - 5: 85,000 (29,750) (29,400) 25,850 (8,789) Incremental earnings after taxes + Depreciation reversal Annual Cash Flow

  27. For Years 1 - 5: 85,000 (29,750) (29,400) 25,850 (8,789) 17,061 + Depreciation reversal Annual Cash Flow

  28. For Years 1 - 5: 85,000 (29,750) (29,400) 25,850 (8,789) 17,061 29,400 Annual Cash Flow

  29. For Years 1 - 5: 85,000 Revenue (29,750) Costs (29,400) Depreciation 25,850 EBT (8,789) Taxes 17,061 EAT 29,400 Depreciation reversal 46,461 = Annual Cash Flow

  30. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows c) Terminal Cash Flow: What is the cash flow at the end of the project’s life? Salvage value +/- Tax effects of capital gain/loss + Recapture of net working capital Terminal Cash Flow

  31. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows c) Terminal Cash Flow: What is the cash flow at the end of the project’s life? 50,000 Salvage value +/- Tax effects of capital gain/loss + Recapture of net working capital Terminal Cash Flow

  32. Tax Effects of Sale of Asset: • Salvage value = $50,000. • Book value = depreciable asset - total amount depreciated. • Book value = $147,000 - $147,000 = $0. • Capital gain = SV - BV = 50,000 - 0 = $50,000. • Tax payment = 50,000 x .34 = ($17,000).

  33. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows c) Terminal Cash Flow: What is the cash flow at the end of the project’s life? 50,000 Salvage value (17,000) Tax on capital gain Recapture of NWC Terminal Cash Flow

  34. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows c) Terminal Cash Flow: What is the cash flow at the end of the project’s life? 50,000 Salvage value (17,000) Tax on capital gain 4,000Recapture of NWC Terminal Cash Flow

  35. Step 1: Evaluate Cash Flows c) Terminal Cash Flow: What is the cash flow at the end of the project’s life? 50,000 Salvage value (17,000) Tax on capital gain 4,000 Recapture of NWC 37,000 Terminal Cash Flow

  36. Project NPV: • CF(0) = -151,000. • CF(1 - 4) = 46,461. • CF(5) = 46,461 + 37,000 = 83,461. • Discount rate = 14%. • NPV = $27,721. • We would acceptthe project.

  37. Capital Rationing • Suppose that you have evaluated five capital investment projects for your company. • Suppose that the VP of Finance has given you a limited capital budget. • How do you decide which projects to select?

  38. Capital Rationing • You could rank the projects by IRR:

  39. IRR 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% $ Capital Rationing • You could rank the projects by IRR: 1

  40. IRR 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% $ Capital Rationing • You could rank the projects by IRR: 2 1

  41. IRR 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% $ Capital Rationing • You could rank the projects by IRR: 2 3 1

  42. IRR 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% $ Capital Rationing • You could rank the projects by IRR: 4 2 3 1

  43. IRR 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% $ Capital Rationing • You could rank the projects by IRR: 5 4 2 3 1

  44. IRR 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% $ Capital Rationing • You could rank the projects by IRR: Our budget is limited so we accept only projects 1, 2, and 3. 5 4 2 3 1 $X

  45. IRR 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% $ Capital Rationing • You could rank the projects by IRR: Our budget is limited so we accept only projects 1, 2, and 3. 2 3 1 $X

  46. Capital Rationing • Ranking projects by IRR is not always the best way to deal with a limited capital budget. • It’s better to pick the largest NPVs. • Let’s try ranking projects by NPV.

  47. Problems with Project Ranking 1) Mutually exclusive projects of unequal size (the size disparity problem) • The NPV decision may not agree with IRR or PI. • Solution: select the project with the largest NPV.

  48. Project A year cash flow 0 (135,000) 1 60,000 2 60,000 3 60,000 required return = 12% IRR = 15.89% NPV = $9,110 PI = 1.07 Size Disparity Example

  49. Project B year cash flow 0 (30,000) 1 15,000 2 15,000 3 15,000 required return = 12% IRR = 23.38% NPV = $6,027 PI = 1.20 Project A year cash flow 0 (135,000) 1 60,000 2 60,000 3 60,000 required return = 12% IRR = 15.89% NPV = $9,110 PI = 1.07 Size Disparity Example

  50. Project B year cash flow 0 (30,000) 1 15,000 2 15,000 3 15,000 required return = 12% IRR = 23.38% NPV = $6,027 PI = 1.20 Project A year cash flow 0 (135,000) 1 60,000 2 60,000 3 60,000 required return = 12% IRR = 15.89% NPV = $9,110 PI = 1.07 Size Disparity Example