How to Embed Quotations A primer
Definition of a “quote” • Quotes are any portion of a text you want to use to defend a claim or provide information. • Quotes may be full sentences, a few words or even an entire paragraph. • Quotes may be something the narrator says, a description, a comment by the characters ( dialogue) or even the margin notes in a text. ANY WRITTEN WORD IN A TEXT THAT YOU PLACE IN YOUR PAPER IS A QUOTE!
TYPES OF QUOTESfull sentence: • Coach Hicks stated, “The key to our success this year has been our inside presence. We have focused on getting the ball to the big man and scoring points in the paint.” • NOTE**** Limit the size of a full sentence quote to only the most significant material! • AN ESSAY SHOULD BE 2/3 YOUR BACKGOUND AND INSIGHT AND 1/3 QUOTED MATERIAL AT MOST!
Partial quotes • It is not always necessary to provide the entire sentence to make a point. A few well chosen words may do. The following passage is paraphrased but the small quote lends credibility to the essay’s claims and are essential to defend an argument. • The Time Traveller defends his research, but the Psychologist rebuts his point saying that while it is possible to move around in space it is not possible to “move about in Time.” (Wells 5) *********Note this citation
condensing a quote • If you want to leave out part of the quotation, use an ellipsis to signify the omission. An ellipsis ( . . . ) is three periods with a space before and after each one. Note******* Anything you take out of a quotation should not change the author’s original meaning. • The narrator states, “I soon found a dislike to it arising within me . . . I avoided the creature . . . Very gradually I came to look upon it with unutterable loathing . . . ” (Poe 140). ( shs quotation guide, 3)
Adding to a quote • Use brackets [like this] to signify any material you add within a quotation to help its meaning. • “He had put on his best black Sunday clothes and, as though he could never quite escape the smear of his profession [he was a baker], he had a dab of dried talcum on his cheek . . .” (Greene 252). • ( shs quotation guide 3)
Full paragraph quotes • These must be used sparingly! The quote must be such that the entire text is the only and best way to represent the idea. • These quotes are set apart from the standard text and boxed into smaller margins. They usually consist of 5 or more lines of text. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed…
A body paragraph with quotations embedded • Jerry is considerate. In the short story we see this when Jerry takes extra-special care to find a place inside the cabin to store dry wood so that the narrator will always have dry materials with which to start a fire. The narrator says, “he did for me the unnecessary thing, the gracious thing, that we find done only by the great of heart. . .He found a cubbyhole beside the fireplace. . .so that I might always have dry fire material.” Jerry does something “unnecessary,” which means he does it of his own free will. He cares for someone else’s needs, even when he will not get anything out of it. He is “gracious,” almost thankful or joyful to serve someone else. He is one of the “great of heart.” In other words, he is caring, loving, willing to put others’ needs before his own selfish concerns. Furthermore, when the orphanage attendant says, “It’s not like him; he’s usually reliable,” after Jerry fails to fire the boiler, this also shows that most of the time Jerry does his duties. Although Jerry is not perfect, he does seem to possess an attitude of taking care of and thinking about others first. From these events we see that Jerry is considerate.
Lead in phrases for embedding quotes • Signal phrases (also known as "lead ins") are words or phrases, in the text of the paper, that indicate to the reader that someone else’s work is going to be used. • The signal phrase provides a smooth lead-in or introduction to the quotation of an author’s work.
A SMOOTH SIGNAL PHRASE • The narrator in “Cathedral” was an insensitive person. When he learns that Robert, his wife’s blind friend, is coming for an overnight visit, he sarcastically declares, “Maybe I could take him bowling.” His lack of sensitivity towards Robert is apparent since bowling is not likely an activity that a blind person engages in. • *** NOTE THAT CONTEXT IS USED TO SET UP THE QUOTE. The verb “declared” is better than “said.”
Powerful signal verbs: • acknowledges, adds, admits, agrees, announces, argues, asserts, believes, claims, comments, compares, complains, confirms, contends, criticizes, declares, defines, denies, disputes, emphasizes, estimates, exclaims, expresses, explains, endorses, grants, illustrates, implies, insists, notes, observes, opines. opposes, perceives, points out, predicts, proclaims, proposes, questions, reasons, recounts, refutes, rejects, remarks, replies, reports, responds, retorts, sees, states, suggests, thinks, writes.
A Poor lead in with repetition • The narrator’s wife in “Cathedral” dealt with a sarcastic husband. “Maybe I could take him bowling” This quote is from page 457 in Carver’s story. This shows that the narrator’s wife in “Cathedral” had to deal with a sarcastic husband. ***** Note, there is no context for this quote so the point of the quote is obscured!
in text citation for a quote or a paraphrase. • Quotes may be drawn from a single source such as a novel or several sources. Every quote in an essay or paper must be attributed to the source. This is accomplished with IN TEXT CITATION! • This means that you will give the source of the material you are using so you will not be accused of plagiarism. You may borrow words but you must give credit for thoughts that are not yours! This is tricky! When in doubt- CITE!
In text Parentetical citation Today, Americans are too self centered. Even our families don't matter as much anymore as they once did. Other people and activities take precedence. In fact, the evidence shows that most American families no longer eat together, preferring instead to eat on the go while rushing to the next appointment (Gleick 148). Sit-down meals are a time to share and connect with others; however, that connection has become less valued, as families begin to prize individual activities over shared time… (Writing 1) NOTE***** The source of the research is identified by the author’s name and the page number of the work which is listed in the bibliography. This clears the essay, speech or article writer from accusations of plagiarism.
Preferred method of In Text citation- name the author and source and insert the page number Today, Americans are too self-centered. Even our families don't matter as much anymore as they once did. Other people and activities take precedence, as James Gleick says in his book, Faster. “We are consumers-on-the-run . . . the very notion of the family meal as a sit-down occasion is vanishing. Adults and children alike eat . . . on the way to their next activity” (148). Sit-down meals are a time to share and connect with others…”
Final tips for successful writing • DO NOT… • use “I think” “I believe” [No “I” statements] /If it’s a persuasive essay, we know it’s your opinion. If it is informative, we know you researched it! • use YOU…never address the reader • use the words get, gotten, things, something, kinda, whatever, stuff, very • use casual language and/or slang • use trite expressions (ex: won the battle & lost the war, better safe than sorry) • use “this quote shows” (shs quotation guide 4)