Stress • What is Stress? • How is Stress Related To Disease? • What Systems of the Body Are Involved in the Stress Response? • How Can We Effectively Reduce The Stress In Our Lives?
Constant Stress Can Lead to.. • Nervous Tension • Aches and Pain • Infectious and Chronic ….DISEASE and Possible DEATH!!
Stress: "The Nonspecific response of the body to any demand"
Body's Biological Response • increased heart rate & blood pressure • cold hands & feet • release of stress hormones • bladder & intestines relax • sweats - dry mouth • hair stands on end
Body's response to stress is limited to these physiological changes no matter what the stressful situation
Stressors - stress producing factors Stress Response - the physiological & emotional changes
Stress-Related Diseases depression diabetes hair loss heart disease hyperthyroidism obesity obsessive-compulsive or anxiety disorder sexual dysfunction tooth and gum disease ulcers cancer (possibly)
What is stress? • Stress is defined as “the general and emotional state that accompanies stressful events.” • There are many causes of stress. • No two people are alike. • Either in how they experience stress, or how they respond to stress.
IN Fact….Two Terms for STRESS and TWO TYPES of STRESS…. Eustress - (coined by Dr. Hans Selye) Pleasant and beneficial The stimultion that helps the mind & body function properly Exercise Positive emotional response
Distress - unpleasant • Negative effects • rejection discrimination • failure persecution • lossridicule • apprehensionpain • helplessness
Eustress Physiological effects are the same. Distress Emotional component differs
The point is..... Selye identifies the two kinds of stress...... The emotional component can have a profound effect on what is otherwise the same physiological function.
Physical Signs….. 1. Pounding heart 2. Trembling w/ nervous tics 3. Grinding of teeth 4. Dry mouth 5. Excessive perspiration 6. Gastrointestinal problems 7. Ache in neck or lower back 8. Migraine or tension headaches 9. Frequent colds or low grade infections 10. Cold hands & feet 11. Allergy or asthma attacks
Outward Emotional & Behavioral Signs…. 1) Irritability, hyper-excitedness, depression 2) Impulsiveness, aggressiveness, emotional instability 3) Urge to cry or to run & hide 4) Inability to concentrate, general disorientation 5) Weakness, dizziness, sense of unreality 6) Fatigue: loss of joy of living 7) Floating Anxiety (fear without an obvious reason) 8) Keyed up feeling 9) Jumpy-(easily startled by small sounds) 10) Nervous high-pitched laughter - (choked speech)
Outward Emotional & Behavioral Signs…. 11) Fidgeting 12) Increased smoking 13) Increased use of prescription drugs 14) Alcohol or drug addiction 15) TV addiction 16) Frequent feeling of boredom 17) Sleep disturbances or excessive sleep 18) Speech difficulties (stuttering) 19) Overeating or undereating 20) Sexual problems - decreased libido
Response to stress, can be counter-productive • drinking denial • smoking flight • drugs withdrawal • suicide
Response is under control of • Autonomic Nervous System • independent of conscious thought • controls organs & glands
Autonomic N.S…… • A) Sympathetic - mobilizes body for action • B) Parasympathetic - calms - restores • Constantly interacting to maintain homeostasis
Homeostasis • Can be defined as a “Steady State” • State of stability and consistency. • ***Stressors disrupt homeostasis (external and internal stimuli are the stressors) • *** Adaptive Reactions occur after “fight or flight” to restore homeostasis
Why the Mouse Needs its Glands or Injections to Replace them! During times of Extreme or Chronic Stress ( Placing a mouse out in freezing temperature would qualify this) The Hypothalamus Releases Corticotropin Releasing Hormone or CRH CRH then stimulates the Pituitary Gland to releases AdrenocorticoTropic (ACTH)Hormone into the blood which stimulates the adrenal glands ACTH stimulates the Adrenal Cortex (outer part of adrenal gland) to release CORTISOL which is stress hormone…but protects the mouse from dying from the cold….without it….it dies!
HANS SELVE Hans Selye in 1936: Studying Rats: He discovered the role of the pituitary and adrenal glands. Found a predictable pattern to STRESSORS: Called pleasant stressors Eustress Unpleasant stressors Distress He is also the guy who discovered that there are 3 stages of stress and coined this the General Adaptation Syndrome or (GAS): Alarm, resistance and exhaustion.
General Adaptation SyndromeFigure 2-2 • 1. Alarm • This is any signal that is recognized as stress. • This causes the activation of adrenal glands. • 2. Resistance • This takes place as your body tries to adjust to the stressful event. • Readjustment of your body to a normal state. This is called “homeostasis.” • 3. Exhaustion • Once you have experienced a stressful event, have you ever felt like you could sleep for days? • Exhaustion allows your body to heal itself, and recharge its batteries. • If this stage is not complete, sickness or death could result.
The Stress Response: Rest state = Homeostasis = steady state ¯ external or internal stimulus disrupts steady state ¯ adaptive reactions to restore steady state
The Stress Response ALARM= • Surge of emotion • Rush of adrenalin • Heightened sense of surroundings (all of these things expend metabolic energy) Alarm prepares for “fight or flight”
GAS develops in 3 stages 1) alarm all of these expend 2) resistance metabolic energy 3) exhaustion
ADAPTIVE RESISTANCE ADAPTIVE(RESISTANCE) Body readjusts-regulating body systems for a new level of homeostasis. Begins Body Repair, if any During resistance a person learns to cope with newly added stress. If stress ends, Parasympathetic nervous system restores body to its resting state. I.e. slows heart beat, reduces perspiration etc..
GAS 2) Resistance Or Adaptive Stage body readjusts - regulating body systems begins damage repair (if any) if stress ends parasympathetic - slows heart beat cuts off perspiration adjusts skin temp etc.
Exhaustion • If no end to stress…alarm reaction persists. • Body’s ability to adjust diminishes. • Energy is used up for “fight or flight” • Distorted Perceptions, disorganized thinking….DEATH!!
Allostatic Load • The long-term wear and tear of the stress response is called allostatic load. • This is actually your body’s response to long-term over-exposure to cortisol. • High levels of cortisol have been associated with CUSHING’s Disease.
Cushing’s Disease • This is a disease associated where unusually high levels of cortisol are secreted by the adrenal cortex often resulting in cardiovascular and other diseases such as type II diabetes. • People with Cushing's disease have too much ACTH. ACTH stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a stress hormone. Too much ACTH means too much cortisol