I/O Psychology in My Life Free Write Describe a job in which you were very stressed. What caused the stress? What did you do to reduce the stress?
Stress Terms • Stress • The psychological and physical reaction to certain life events or situations. • Stressor • The life event that causes stress • Strain • The consequences of stress
Types of Stress • Eustress • Stress converted to positive energy • Desirable outcome of stress • Motivational results • Optimal level of arousal • Distress • Negative outcome • Results in emotional and physical illness
Let's Talk Can stress be a good thing?
Predisposition to Stress • Stress Personalities • Type A vs. Type B • Pessimists vs. Optimists • Neuroticism • Gender, Ethnicity, Race • Stress Sensitization
Sources of StressPersonal Stressors • Fear • Resistance • Resentment
Sources of StressOccupational Stressors • Job Characteristics • Role conflict • Role ambiguity • Role overload • Organizational Characteristics • Person/organization fit • Change • Relations with others • Organizational politics
Sources of StressPhysical Work Environment • Noise • Temperature
Effects of Noise on Health • Hearing loss • Increased blood pressure • More frequent illness
Effects of Noise on Performance • Affects quality more than quantity • Decreased performance on cognitive tasks • Decreased job satisfaction
Effects of Noise on Behavior • Narrowed focus • Lower altruism • Decreased eye contact • Increased rate of walking
OSHA Noise Limits Hours of ExposureMaximum Decibels 8 90 (city traffic) 6 92 4 95 (food blender) 2 100 1 105 1/2 110 (lawn mower) 1/4 115 (riveting machine) 120 (disco) 130 (jet takeoff)
Reducing Noise • Legal limits to noise exposure • Change the environment (e.g., carpet, acoustic tiles) • Reduce noise reaching employee (e.g., ear plugs) • Reduce noise emitted
Temperature • Body reduces heat by • radiation • evaporation • Body increases heat by • constricting blood vessels • Effective temperature • air temperature • humidity • airflow • temperature of objects in the environment
Effects of Temperature • Depend on • temperature • task type • workload • amount of exposure • rest periods
Sources of StressOther Sources • Minor frustration • Forecasting • Residual
Consequences of StressOrganizational • Job performance (curvilinear relationship) • Burnout • Absenteeism • Turnover • Drug/alcohol abuse • Health care costs
Less energy Lower productivity Being late to work Complaining and negativity Decreased concentration Forgetfulness Apathy Dread coming to work Feeling overwhelmed Tension and frustration Feelings of little impact on coworkers or the organization Signs of Burnout
Psychological Depression Anxiety Anger Sleep problems Physical Illness Headaches Joint pain Behaviors Smoking Drinking Drug abuse Consequences of StressPersonal
Managing StressPlanning for Stress • Exercise • Laughter • Diet • Smoking reduction • Sleep • Support groups • Self-empowerment • Coping skills
Managing StressDuring and After Stress • Relaxation techniques • Abdominal breathing • Progressive muscle relaxation • Meditation • Time management
Let's Talk Were the techniques used by Hewlett-Packard to reduce stress effective? Cole, J. (1999). De-stressing the workplace. HR Focus, October, page 1.
Life/Work InterventionsAssist With Child Care • Why the Concern? • 40% of employees have children • Lack of child care results in 8 more days of absenteeism • Organizational Strategies • Allow employee to bring child to work in emergency (31%) • Provide referral service (18%) • Provide emergency child care (32%) • Provide on-site child care facility (<1%) • Subsidize cost of child care (6%)
Life/Work InterventionsAssist With Elder Care • Why the Concern? • 33% of employees provide elder care • 50% of employees missed work, were late, or quit their jobs due to elder care responsibilities • Organizational Strategies • Provide referral service (20%) • Provide emergency elder care (5%) • Provide on-site elder care facility (<1%) • Subsidize cost of elder care (4%)
Life/Work InterventionsProvide Alternative Work Schedules Source: SHRM 2008 Benefits Survey
Life/Work InterventionsWellness Programs Source: SHRM 2008 Benefits Survey
Life/Work InterventionsAssist with Daily Chores Source: SHRM 2008 Benefits Survey
Let's Talk What should organizations do to reduce stress?
Workplace Violence • Statistics • Homicide reason for 11.1% of workplace fatalities • 1% of employees annually victims of workplace violence • Types of Workplace Violence • Homicides during commission of a crime (71%) • Homicide of a law enforcement officer (14%) • Acts of vengeance against employee (15%) • Committed by current employee (44%) • Former employees (23%) • Domestic violence (21%) • Other (12%)
Workplace Violence Perpetrators • Male (80%) • 20 - 50 years of age (usually in his 40s) • Self-esteem tied to job • Feels there is no other way of resolving his mistreatment other than violence • Demonstrated a recent pattern of problems at work • Has recently tried to get others to take his dilemma seriously by threatening, yelling, etc. • Has begun showing signs of paranoid thinking • Has become isolated and withdrawn • Has ready access to guns
Reducing Workplace Violence • Security measures • Better employee screening methods • Increased management awareness
Let's Talk What should a manager if she believes an employee is dangerous?
Putting it all Together Applied Case Study: Reducing Stress
Let's Talk Focus on Ethics Does the organization have an obligation to reduce stress?
What Do You Think? • Do you think companies have an ethical responsibility to offer solutions for employees that will help reduce stress? • Do you think companies are to blame for the high stress levels in the workplace? • What are some things that companies can offer or do for their employees? • Do you think employees have any responsibility for ensuring they stay healthy under stressful conditions? • If so, what are some things that employees can do for themselves?