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Responding to Problem Behavior

Responding to Problem Behavior

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Responding to Problem Behavior

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  1. Responding to Problem Behavior Effective Responses

  2. Activity • On the chart paper at your table, make a list of all the consequences you’ve used that are effective. • Be prepared to explain why they are effective. • Choose a person to share with the group.

  3. Participant Expectations Be Responsible Return promptly from breaks Be an active participant Use electronic devices appropriately Be Respectful Maintain cell phone etiquette Listen attentively to others Limit sidebars and stay on topic Be Kind Enter discussions with an open mind Respond appropriately to others’ ideas Honor confidentiality

  4. Attention Signal Please make note of time limits and watch your clocks! • Trainer will raise his/her hand. • Finish your thought/comment. • Participants will raise a hand and wait quietly.

  5. Why are we here?

  6. Rationale • Punitive systems have become widespread, yet are not exactly a good fit for PBIS schools. • Teachers need support to transition from these systems to tiered systems of interventions and continuums of responses.

  7. What are Progressive Consequence Systems? • Systems in which a student’s card (or any object) is turned, pulled or moved for a problem behavior and increasing punishments are given at each step • Systems in which a student receives a “strike” or a “tally” for a problem behavior and a punishment is assigned for each notation • Can provide a quick way to communicate to a student that an error has occurred • Usually provides a planned response to the behavior that allows the teacher to continue with instruction and move forward as quickly as possible (Sprick, 2007)

  8. Progressive Consequence Systems and PBIS • There are some significant problems with progressive consequence systems that make it difficult to support them as a practice. • PBIS is designed to be a framework that supports “research-based, best-practices.” Can we say with certainty that these systems are research and evidence based best practices that will work to change behavior over time?

  9. Issue #1: Consistency is Inconsistent! It is very difficult for teachers to be absolutely consistent in their own responses to every behavior and for teachers to be consistent with each other. It often results in teachers not moving a card when, according to the rules they should, or to give too severe a penalty for a repeated minor behavior. This dilemma between being overly harsh or overly lenient is confusing for students to know what the expectations actually are. (Sprick, 2007)

  10. Issue #2: Breach of Confidentiality Often, students do not feel fairly and respectfully treated by having their challenges publicly displayed and attention called to their mistakes. If we look at this practice from the child’s perspective, we can’t help but wonder how it feels to always have a red or yellow card by your name. Students and families are publicly humiliated or embarrassed. Would we do this with academic behaviors? “Laura, you missed that math problem-go flip your card!” (Sprick, 2007)

  11. Issue #3: Are We Changing Behavior? There are rarely truly effective, logical consequences attached to the movement of the clip or card or the assignment of a strike or tally. In some cases, the actual moving of the clip or card is the only consequence to the student’s behavior. We know that behavior doesn’t change simply because a strike is given or a card is flipped. (Shindler, 2008)

  12. Objectives • Review the components of classroom management • Understand the difference between punishments and effective responses • Discuss methods to collect classroom behavior data that is discrete and maintains confidentiality • Design a pyramid of interventions that include a continuum of research-based responses at each level • Create reinforcement systems that are contingent upon appropriate behavior

  13. PBIS and Classroom Management

  14. What is Effective Classroom Management? Classroom management refers to all of the things that an educator does to organize students, space, time, and materials, so that instruction in content and student learning can take place. In the four domains of RtI, over which domain do we have the least amount of control? Instruction Curriculum Environment Learner

  15. Six Evidence-Based Practices to Ensure Positive Behavior It is smart to have a classroom management plan. • Your overall plan should include: • Routines and procedures (structure!) • Classroom expectations (posted and referred to often) • Methods for teaching expectations • Procedures for encouraging positive behavior • Procedures for responding to problem behavior (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers & Sugai, 2008)

  16. Responding to Problem Behavior Responses vs. Punishments

  17. Responding to Problem Behavior: Re-Thinking Consequences • In traditional discipline, the word consequence is often used to describe a punishment. • A consequence is any thing that occurs after a problem behavior has occurred (positive or negative). • Effective consequences, or responses to behavior, are those that result in the problem behavior changing over time. • Ineffective consequences are those that may stop the behavior temporarily, but result in either no change or increase of the problem behavior over time.

  18. Responding to Problem Behavior:The ABCs Understanding the purpose of behavior comes from repeated observation of: A: Antecedent: stimulus before the behavior B: Behavior: observable and measurable act C: Consequence: what occurs after the behavior that serves to maintain or increase frequency of behavior

  19. Responding to Problem Behavior: Consequences • Consequences are: • The outcome of the behavior • The responses of adults and/or peers to the behavior • Responses that reinforce behavior lead to repetition of the behavior.

  20. Responding to Problem Behavior: Consequences To understand the consequences of a behavior, observe what happens in the environment immediately after the behavior. What is the pay-off? What does the student get? What does the student avoid?

  21. Responding to Problem Behavior: Prevention/Teach/Respond • Problem behavior cannot be changed by the responses alone, because those only occur after the problem behavior and the possibility for intervention is reduced. • Effective classroom managers should focus first on strategies designed to prevent and modify behavior before it occurs. • Prevention through routines and procedures • Replacement through teaching expectations • Reinforcement of desired behavior through positive responses • Effective, logicalresponses to problem behaviors

  22. Responding to Problem Behavior: General Guidelines • Even with prevention and teaching strategies in place, problem behavior will occur and require an adult response. • The following guidelines ensure that these interventions are effective: • Approach problem behavior as you would a learning error • Plan your responses to typical problems in advance • Teach students what to do differently • Match level of intensity to the problem behavior. • Consider context and student history • Use the least intrusive intervention first

  23. Responding to Problem Behavior: Logical Consequences • Logical consequences are those that allow students to learn from their mistakes while preserving their dignity. • Goals of logical consequences: • To give children the chance to regain self-control • To help children recognize the connection between their actions and the outcomes of their actions • To allow them to fix problems caused by their misbehavior and to make amends • To guide students in avoiding similar problems in the future • To preserve the dignity of the child and the integrity of the group • To keep children safe (Shindler, 2008)

  24. Responding to Problem Behavior: Characteristics of Logical Consequences Respectful • The teacher’s words and tone of voice communicate respect for the student. • The focus is on the behavior rather than on the student’s character. • EX. A child pushes another student and the teacher says, “Stop pushing,” rather than, “Stop being a bully.” Relevant • The consequence is directly related to the problem behavior or actions. • EX. A group of children are working together and spend the time talking about the weekend, rather than working. A logical consequence would be that those students do not work together for the rest of the day. Realistic • The consequence must be something the students can reasonably do and that the teacher can monitor and manage. • EX. A child writes on a desk, he would be asked to clean that desk.

  25. What’s the Difference? (Shindler, 2008)

  26. Reworking Responses to Problem Behavior: Adult Language When responding to problem behavior, language should be respectful and focused on the behavior, not the student. The three main types are: • Reinforcing Language: Identifies and affirms specific behaviors that apply to all students (“I see lots of people remembering to push in their chairs before we line up.”) • Reminding Language: Offers support and information about what to do (“Show me…” or “Think about…” or “What will we need…”) • Redirecting Language : Clear, non-negotiable statement with instructions (“Use quiet voices,” or, “Hands down until the speaker is done talking.”) (Wood, 2013)

  27. Reworking Responses to Problem Behavior: Contrasting Language (Wood, 2013)

  28. Reworking Responses to Problem Behavior: Effective Responses Review • Teach a new behavior and offer the opportunity to practice. • Are used immediately or closely following problem behavior. • Offer a range of options to teachers for classroom interventions.

  29. Top Three Most Effective Responses to Problem Behavior Based on a survey of US teachers by the University of Kansas, the top three most effective consequences are: • Positive Practice • Restitution/Time Owed • Reflection

  30. Best Redirection Ever “What are you doing?” “What are you supposed to be doing?” “Show me you can do that.”

  31. Activity:Ensuring Effective, Logical Responses to Problem Behavior • Using the list of consequences generated by the people at your table, identify which are “logical.” • Indicate which ones have and which ones have not been effective in changing the student’s behavior.

  32. Least Effective Discipline “Strategies” Why do you think these are the least effective responses? • Punishment • Exclusion • Counseling (Gottfredson, 1997; Elliott, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998; Tolan & Guerra, 1994; Lipsey, 1991, 1992)

  33. Responding to Problem Behavior Process

  34. Process for Responding to Problem Behavior: School-wide System Must Be Strong • Before we establish a pyramid of interventions in the classroom, the school-wide system to respond to problem behavior must be clear. • The process for responding must be defined, taught, and agreed upon by staff. • Procedures should be included for addressing: • Minor issues • Patterns of minors • Major incidents • Crisis situations • Follow up

  35. Process for Responding to Problem Behavior: Data Collection • Typically, data collection is done by color coding cards and clips, or by assigning strikes to students. • This type of data is usually publically collected with no real intervention attached. • In order to design effective responses, we must collect accurate, useful data. • This data collection must be done privately, confidentially, and objectively.

  36. Process for Responding to Problem Behavior: Patterns of Minor Behaviors • Most progressive consequence systems do not have a plan to address patterns of minor behaviors. • These patterns need to be addressed before sending the student to the office. • Minor behaviors remain minor behaviors, regardless of the frequency of occurrence. • Process for seeking assistance needs to be in place and taught to staff. “That kid is always on red.”

  37. Process for Responding to Problem Behavior: Sample Minor Reporting Form

  38. Activity: Collecting Data • With your tablemates, brainstorm methods to collect classroom behavior data. • All methods should be confidential and maintain the dignity of the student. • Record these ideas on the chart paper on your table.

  39. Responding to Problem Behavior Pyramids of Interventions

  40. Pyramids of Interventions: Definition • In RtI/PBIS, tiered interventions are the key to ensuring that we are meeting the needs of all of the students in our school. • In the classroom, a pyramid of interventions act as a menu of effective responses from which we can choose. • This helps us design supports for children that meet the functional need of the behavior.

  41. Pyramid of Interventions: Classroom Early Stage Responses • Early stage responses should be brief and flow seamlessly into instruction. • In many cases, early intervention is enough and doesn’t require follow up. • Look: eye contact, a quizzical “you-know-better” facial expression, a stern look • Gesture: a head shake, thumbs down, finger over lips, sign language for “stop” • Move: get in closer proximity to the student • Remind: state individual’s name softly and restate the expectation • Redirect: eye contact, whispered name, a signal for student to move seat or change tasks • Touch: firm, but friendly hand on the shoulder meant to calm the child • Remove: the teacher “pockets” a distracting object or holds it for safekeeping

  42. Pyramid of Interventions: Early Stage Responses Example: KingswoodElementary, Cary, NC

  43. Pyramid of Interventions:Early Stage Responses Example: Lake Myra Elementary, Wendell, NC Teach SWIM Matrix SWIM Practice Morning Meeting Character Education assemblies Classroom positive reward system School-Wide positive reward system Positive office referral Check physical space Review the daily schedule Beginning and ending routines Reviewed transitional issues Attention signals Developing and teaching expectations and encouraging expected behavior Pre-corrects Parent contact Buddy Room Re-teach SWIM 4 to 1 positive to redirect ratio Non-contingent attention Earn back in classroom system What have you done to build relationship? Student/teacher conference Talked to previous teacher Systematic study of SWIS data 100% of the Students Receive Universal Strategies

  44. Pyramid of Interventions: Early Stage Responses Example: Vance Elementary, Raleigh, NC

  45. Pyramid of Interventions:Early Stage Responses Example: Burns Middle School, Lawndale, NC • Non-verbal warning • Proximity control • Verbal warning • Pat on the back • Planned ignoring of behavior • Individual/whole group reteaching • Refer student to SOAR matrix • Phone call to parents • Email parents • Documentation in planner • Preferential seating • Individual student conference • Setting learning goals • Reinforce other students showing desired behavior • Cuing • Think sheet • Restitution • Time out in classroom • Write an apology note • Working lunch • Silent lunch • Consult with EC/ESL teacher • Teacher assigned ASD • Clear routines and procedures • Have extra materials available

  46. Pyramid of Interventions: Early Stage Responses Example: Dillard Drive Middle, Raleigh, NC

  47. Pyramid of Interventions: Early Stage Responses Example: Garner High School, Garner, NC

  48. Activity: Early Stage Responses • Using the expertise at your table, create a list of effective early stage interventions you could use in the classroom. • There is chart paper available. • Choose one person to be the spokesperson.

  49. Pyramid of Interventions: Classroom Middle Stage Responses Middle stage responses are used when early responses do not work, and require prior planning. Restitution: Student actively repairs the damage caused. • Physical repair: Student tries to help repair property or work of a peer. • Verbal repair: Student uses “I” statements to genuinely apologize for behavior to individuals hurt by the behavior. Loss of privilege: A privilege that is not being used responsibly is temporarily removed. Time owed: Student completes work or tasks missed due to misbehavior on their own time. Time out: The student is separated briefly from the group to reflect and calm down. Antiseptic Bouncing: Time out without saying time out.

  50. Pyramid of Interventions:Middle Stage Responses Example: Lake Myra Elementary, Wendell, NC • Discuss with PLC • Refer to PBS team • Refer to Counselor • Behavior contract • Social skills classes • Refer for mentor • Refer to administration • Check in buddy • Goal setting system • Define acceptable alternative • Seek possible professional development for staff member 20% of the Students Receive Secondary Strategies