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Fresh Water Environments. Water environments. Most important factors Salinity (how much salt) Depth Cleanliness (pH, pollution, etc ) We will investigate Freshwater Seashores Coral reefs. 2 types of fresh-water environments. Standing environments Lakes Ponds Vernal (seasonal) pools
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Water environments • Most important factors • Salinity (how much salt) • Depth • Cleanliness (pH, pollution, etc) • We will investigate • Freshwater • Seashores • Coral reefs
2 types of fresh-water environments • Standing environments • Lakes • Ponds • Vernal (seasonal) pools • Flowing water environments • Rivers • Streams • brooks
Lakes • Lakes are in motion despite being “standing”. • Changing water temperature helps circulate the nutrients and oxygen. • Mostly freshwater. • Lakes are divided into 3 zones • Shallow-water zone • Open-water zone • Deep-water zone
Shallow-water zone • Shallow-water zone • Near the shore • Sunlight makes it to the bottom • Plants and insect larvae exist here • Small fish and frogs live here • Ducks, birds and small mammals live in the plants here.
Open-water zone • Open-water zone • Away from shore • Begins at the lake surface • Goes until little sunlight reaches • Plankton (microscopic plants) and algae grow here • Larger fish live here
Deep-water zone • Very little sunlight reaches here. • Water is cool and dark • Has less oxygen (O2) than surface • If enough oxygen large fish like trout are here • Only animals that need little light and oxygen live here. • Burrowing mayflies and microscopic organisms.
Phytoplankton • Small microscopic plants found in bodies of water (fresh and salt-water). • 5 things about Phytoplankton: • Algae is an example. • a single-celled plant (usually). • floats freely in the water. • photosynthesize • the primary producer in a fresh or saltwater environment (MOST important link in an aquatic food web)
Salt water environments • 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered by ocean. • 3 zones • Deep-water • Surface zone • Seashore
Deep-water zone (in an ocean) • Little to no sunlight • Few plants • Water is cold and dark • Giant squid and viperfish live here. • Some anemones and deep-sea tube worms on the floor.
Surface zone • Rich in plankton • Sunlight warms water here • Free swimming fish • Whales and sharks
Seashore • Most plant and animal life exists here. (both in quantity and variety) • Constantly changing • Tides affect • Plankton grow here • Mussels, clams and worms feed bigger fish and birds. • 3 types of seashores • Rocky • Muddy • sandy
Coral Reef • Related to sea anemones and jellyfish! • Have soft bodies called polyps! • (polyp secretes a casing to protect itself of hard limestone) • Baby Polyp swims briefly then attaches for life. • A reef is made of millions of dead skeletons and only the surface is live. • Many fish, starfish and sea anemones live here • Need warm salt water and sunlight (70 to 85)
Coral Reefs • Have existed for millions of years. • 3 main types of reefs • Fringing reefs (from coastline to sea) • Barrier reefs (parallel to coastline) • Atolls (rings of reefs around an island) • Many are in danger due to construction, divers, and pollution.