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Fresh Water. Runoff. Rain water that does not sink into earth’s surface, but instead runs across is called runoff. Streams and Rivers. These are a natural bodies of running fresh water flowing due to gravity. Drainage Basin. Water flows down Earth’s surface because of gravity.
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Runoff Rain water that does not sink into earth’s surface, but instead runs across is called runoff.
Streams and Rivers These are a natural bodies of running fresh water flowing due to gravity.
Drainage Basin Water flows down Earth’s surface because of gravity. The lowest level that water can flow to is called its base level. A drainage basin is the area of land that a stream drains.
Erosion Erosion is when streams move rock and sediment (silt, sand, or gravel) from one place and transport it to another. Loadis the sediment that is carried by a stream.
Lakes Some lakes form naturally and some are man made.
Natural Lakes Natural lakes were formed a. when glaciers scoured out depressions that later filled with water. b. by shifting of the Earth’s crust
Man-Made lakes Dams can be built to form a lake from a river or stream. A reservoir is a man made lake that holds water for human consumption.
Outlets and Inlets Most lakes have an inlet, which is the water that flows into the lake. Most lakes also have an outlet, which is where excess water leaves the lake.
Lake Nutrients Lakes contain nutrients like nitrates and phosphates which feed algae and plants.
Eutrophication Eutrophication is a natural process that slowly turns a lake into land. • Sediments are deposited by inlets. • The depth of the lake decreases. • Nutrients encourage plant growth. • Plants and algae take over the entire lake.
Lake Turnover During the fall, the water cools and sinks down mixing the nutrients throughout the lake. This cycle keeps a lake healthy and balanced. Why does the cool water sink to the bottom of a lake?
1. Warm surface water cools and sinks. 2. Cold nutrient rich water rises to the surface as the lake mixes.
Wetlands Areas of land covered with water during most parts of the year.
Wetland types Types include swamps, marshes, or bogs and are defined mostly by their vegetation (plant life).
Swamps Most common plants are trees and shrubs. Tree examples include cypress and mangrove trees.
Mangrove Swamp Cypress Swamp
Marshes Lacks trees and shrubs and contain mostly grasses and soft-stemmed plants.
The Snowy Egret (top left), Great Blue Heron (top right), Northern Mockingbird (bottom left) and Anhinga (bottom right)
Bogs Most bogs form in depressions once created by glaciers. Because no streams enter, bogs are low in nutrients. This is why many bog plant are carnivorous getting their food from insects. Bog plants include pitcher plants and Venus flytraps.
Pitcher plants Venus Fly Trap