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70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

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70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

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  1. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration Chapter 13 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Server

  2. Objectives • Understand the tools available for monitoring the health of the Exchange Server 2003 environment • Understand the different steps used by nightly online maintenance to maintain server Information Stores • Describe the maintenance tools used for maintaining, troubleshooting, and fixing an Exchange 2003 server • Understand the process involved in troubleshooting server issues 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  3. Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Server • Monitor e-mail infrastructure for successful operation • Spot potential problems before they occur • Respond quickly to problems that do occur • Identify trends in usage patterns • What to monitor: connections, services, servers, resource usage • Use Exchange Server 2003 tools to aid monitoring • Skills for troubleshooting Exchange refined by experience 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  4. Monitoring • Monitoring tools: server and link monitors • Server monitors: • Check the status of designated services • Check the usage of particular resources • Link (connection status) monitors: • Check status of connection between two servers • Status for link monitor is either available or unavailable • Special configuration is unneeded (unlike server monitors) • Configure monitors and view status with Exchange System Manager 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  5. Activity 13-1: Viewing Monitors • Time Required: 10 to 15 minutes • Objective: View the status of existing monitors • Description: View the list of servers within the organization and determine their current status to ensure that they are operating. In addition, you also verify that the connectors you have established between servers are available to transmit messages. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  6. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  7. Monitoring (continued) • Server monitors provide status of six resources: • Windows 2000 service • SMTP queue growth • X.400 queue growth • CPU utilization • Free disk space • Available virtual memory • Warning or critical event generated if monitored service stops 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  8. Monitoring (continued) • Preconfigured services installed for default monitoring: • Microsoft Exchange Information Store • Microsoft Exchange MTA Stacks • Microsoft Exchange Routing Engine • Microsoft Exchange System Attendant • Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) • World Wide Web Publishing Service • Additional services help monitor overall functionality • Examples: antivirus service or backup agent 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  9. Activity 13-2: Configuring Service Monitoring • Time Required: 15 to 20 minutes • Objective: Configure service monitoring on your server • Description: Add and configure services to be monitored on your back-end server. You also configure notifications that allow you to be notified when problems occur on any server in your organization. You can configure two types of notifications: an e-mail notification or a script notification. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  10. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  11. Monitoring (continued) • Continual queue growth indicates a potential problem in e-mail system • Message inflow is greater than message outflow • Network may have systemic issues • Two server monitors assist with monitoring queues: • X.400 queue monitor • SMTP queue monitor • Configuring queue monitoring: • Specify period of acceptable continual queue growth • Trigger warning or critical state if period is exceeded 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  12. Activity 13-3: Configuring SMTP Queue Monitoring • Time Required: 10 to 20 minutes • Objective: Configure queue monitoring to monitor for sustained queue growth • Description: Configure message queue monitoring on the server to watch for sustained queue growth for extended periods of time. This can be an indicator of network or system problems that might need attention. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  13. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  14. Monitoring (continued) • High CPU utilization may indicate several issues • Insufficient processing power • Too many services running on machine • Remedying problems is related to CPU utilization • If CPU utilization runs at 100% for an extended period, reboot server • Offload services to another machine • Configuring CPU monitoring: • Specify period CPU may run above a certain level • Trigger warning or critical state if period is exceeded 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  15. Activity 13-4: Configuring CPU Utilization Monitoring • Time Required: 10 to 20 minutes • Objective: Configure CPU utilization monitoring to monitor for sustained high CPU usage on a server • Description: Configure CPU utilization monitoring on the server to monitor the CPU usage on the back-end server. When CPU utilization is too high, the server is unable to process messages effectively or manage other critical functions. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  16. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  17. Monitoring (continued) • Disk space uses: • Data storage • Logging • Tracking • Virtual memory • Exchange shuts down services if disk space is lacking • Closely monitor free disk space to avoid shutdown • Responding to notification of diminishing space: • Replace undersized disk drives • Free up space on existing drives • Investigate log usage 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  18. Activity 13-5: Configuring Free Disk Space Monitoring • Time Required: 10 to 20 minutes • Objective: Configure disk space monitoring to monitor the free space on your server • Description: Configure disk space monitoring on the back-end server to monitor the disk space usage on the server. When disk space runs out, the server can begin to malfunction because it has no place to store the information. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  19. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  20. Monitoring (continued) • Brief notes on virtual memory used by Windows • OS perceives memory capacity above physical amount • Virtual memory takes the form of page (swap) file • Diminishing disk space indicates memory issues • Determine if server dips below certain usage level • Determine how long server remains below threshold • Configuring virtual memory monitoring: • Specify period available virtual memory can remain below threshold • Trigger warning or critical state if period is exceeded 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  21. Activity 13-6: Configuring Virtual Memory Monitoring • Time Required: 10 to 20 minutes • Objective: Configure virtual memory monitoring to monitor the available virtual memory on your server • Description: Configure virtual memory monitoring on the back-end server to monitor the virtual memory usage on the server. Because Exchange is extremely memory intensive, it is a good idea to keep an eye on available virtual memory. This helps you see if the server is using memory efficiently. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  22. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  23. Preventive Maintenance • Run maintenance tasks to reduce chance of problems • Example: database consistency and cleanup • Maintenance tasks run by server on a nightly basis • Validates integrity of Information Store • Ensures unneeded items are removed from database 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  24. Activity 13-7: Configuring the Maintenance Interval for Exchange Databases • Time Required: 5 to 10 minutes • Objective: Configure the maintenance interval for the Exchange databases on your server • Description: Configure the time at which the maintenance routines run against the databases on your back-end server. By default, Exchange Server 2003 runs maintenance tasks daily from 1:00 a.m. until 5:00 a.m. This activity changes the interval to 11:00 p.m. until 3:00 a.m. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  25. Information Store Maintenance • Information Store maintenance • Can be configured to run at specific times • Tasks not completed are carried over to the next run 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  26. Purge Indexes • Indexes are used to expedite a search within the store • Indexes are created dynamically as the Information Store is used • Ex 1: when information is resorted • Ex 2: when information is requested in a different sort order • Excess index growth is managed with expiry time • Information store assigns expiry time to index • Index must be used within expiry time • If expiry time exceeds current time, index is deleted • Exchange removes indexes by default after 40 days 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  27. Tombstone Cleanup • Mailbox folder structure organizes and stores mail items • Actions following deletion of message from folder: • Message deactivated and marked for deletion in store • Tombstone (marker) is created for the message • Tombstone is propagated to other stores • Default setting for tombstone is 60 days • Insures deletions for objects replicate across all stores • Tombstone checked for expiration during maintenance • Objects with expired tombstones are deleted from store 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  28. Deleted Item Retention Cleanup • Deleted messages placed in deleted item retention • Examining deleted item retention during nightly maintenance: • Check for messages exceeding deleted item retention period • Permanently delete expired messages • Clean out expired messages from dumpster 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  29. Public Folder Expiry • Exchange checks public folder messages during nightly maintenance • Determines expiration according to Limits tab value • Messages exceeding Limits tab value are removed from public folder store 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  30. Activity 13-8: Setting the Age Limit on Public Information Stores • Time Required: 5 to 10 minutes • Objective: Configure the age limit for public folders on the public folder store • Description: Age limits are used to control the amount of information that users can post to public folders. Users who exceed the designated limits receive warning messages and are subject to restrictions, such as the inability to post messages. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  31. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  32. Folder Tombstoning • Actions following deletion of public folder: • Tombstone created for public folder • Default tombstone setting is 180 days • Tombstone replicated throughout organization • Tombstones are examined during Information Store maintenance cycle • Public folders with expired tombstones are permanently deleted from store 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  33. Conflict Aging • Conflicts may occur when a public folder is modified • Ex: one user overwrites the change made by another • Exchange checks for conflict in maintenance cycle • Determines if conflict is resolved by participants • Users have opportunity during conflict aging • If not, checks if conflict age limit is exceeded • Exchange takes action on unresolved conflicts 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  34. Site Folder Check and Version Information Update • Public folder database may have replicas of: • System configuration folders • System folder for administrative group • Check public folders with system folder replicas • Ensure that duplicate folders do not exist • Remove any duplicates that exist • Ensure that version information is up to date • Update version information, if necessary 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  35. Mailbox Cleanup • Account deletion does not entail immediate mailbox deletion • Mailbox is in Information Store for another 30 days • Purpose for retaining mailboxes after account deletion: • Gives administrators time to re-attach mailbox to re-created account • Employee may return to company within 30 days • Mailboxes in Store after 30 day period are deleted 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  36. Message Table Check • Reference count data is maintained for messages • Check reference count to ensure database is consistent with message information • Reference count of zero: • Indicates message is not currently displayed by any folder • Messages in category are deleted during nightly maintenance 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  37. Online Defragmentation • Online defragmentation is a critical maintenance task • Operation of online defragmentation: • Perform full pass over database • Free up pages by compacting records • Database objects no longer used are deleted • Mailbox and public folder store are reorganized • Reduces amount of I/O time • Suspend incomplete online defragmentation process • I/O intensive operation should not affect production 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  38. Maintenance Utilities • Additional maintenance utilities provided by Microsoft • Four important additional utilities: • ESEUTIL • ISINTEG • RPC Ping • MTA Check 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  39. ESEUTIL • ESEUTIL: command line utility • Performs maintenance and repair on Information Stores • Important ESEUTIL options: • Integrity check • Offline defragmentation • Repairing a database • Use ESEUTIL only if normal backup is ineffective • Copy database before applying ESEUTIL options • Integrity check: first option to exercise with ESEUTIL • Checks database signatures and signatures on each page • Ensures that .edb file has .stm file association 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  40. Activity 13-9: Using ESEUTIL to Check the Integrity of Your Database • Time Required: 10 to 20 minutes • Objective: Run the ESEUTIL utility to check the integrity of mailbox store on your server • Description: Check the integrity of the Mailbox Store (SERVERXX), where XX is the number assigned to the back-end server, by running the ESEUTIL utility. When checking the integrity of the database, ESEUTIL checks the database tables, rebuilds all indexes on a temporary database (TEMPTINTEG.edb), and compares the indexes to the original. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  41. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  42. ESEUTIL (continued) • Public folder store and mailbox store databases grow as information is added • Databases do not shrink when information is removed • Space is marked available during nightly garbage collection • New information is written to any available free space • Available space is used before database is expanded • May require single files to be broken up for storage • Fragmentation: reduced size of blocks of free space • Exchange Server 2003 and fragmentation • Online defragmentation manages fragmentation issues • Online defragmentation does not compact database 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  43. ESEUTIL (continued) • ESEUTIL and fragmentation: • Defragments and compacts database when Store is offline • When to use ESEUTIL for offline defragmentation: • Moving mailboxes off Information Store • Archiving large number of attachments to Hierarchical Storage Management Solution • When to be wary of using offline defragmentation: • Reclaiming free disk space created on a daily basis • Database may quickly grow back to original size in daily environment 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  44. Activity 13-10: Using ESEUTIL to Perform Offline Defragmentation • Time Required: 10 to 20 minutes • Objective: Perform an offline defragmentation of the mailbox store on your server • Description: Perform an offline defragmentation of the mailbox database on your Exchange 2003 server. ESEUTIL defragments the database by moving the used pages in the database into contiguous blocks in a new database. Unused pages are discarded, which is the only way to recover empty space inside the database for other uses. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  45. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  46. ESEUTIL (continued) • The role of ESEUTIL in recovering disk space • Use when database is corrupt and backup is not available • Recovery mode of ESEUTIL (run first): • Applies records in transaction stores against database • Ensures transactions committed • Ensures ESEUTIL is working with all data • Repair mode used to resurrect database: • Checks and repairs critical structures • Does not act to maintain relationships between tables and pages within tables 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  47. Activity 13-11: Using ESEUTIL to Recover and Repair a Database • Time Required: 10 to 20 minutes • Objective: Perform a recovery and repair of a mailbox store on your server using ESEUTIL • Description: Perform a repair of the Mailbox Store (SERVERXX), where XX is the number assigned to the back-end server, on the back-end server. Prior to repairing a database, it is highly recommended that you perform a recovery operation before attempting any repairs. This is to ensure that all transactions have been committed to the database prior to running the repair. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  48. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  49. ISINTEG • Information Store Integrity Check (ISINTEG) • Eliminates errors in Information Store databases • Resolves issues in relationships between tables • Example using ISINTEG with ESEUTIL: • ESEUTIL discards unreadable messages in Msgs table • Folder in mailbox may have references to messages • Run ISINTEG to resolve issue • ISINTEG removes references to deleted messages • ISINTEG runs in two modes: • Check mode: reports on errors encountered • Check and fix mode: reports and fixes errors 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration

  50. 70-284 MCSE Guide to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Administration