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Main symptoms and syndromes in ischemic heart disease

Main symptoms and syndromes in ischemic heart disease

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Main symptoms and syndromes in ischemic heart disease

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  1. Main symptoms and syndromes in ischemic heart disease Prof. S.M.Andreychyn

  2. IHD - synonims – coronary disease, coronary insufficiency – is severe chest pain due to ischemia (a lack of blood and hence oxygen supply) of the heart muscle, generally due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries (the heart's blood vessels). DEFINITION

  3. 1. Sudden coronary death or heart arrest (HA) • 1.1. HA with following resuscitation. • 1.2. HA with following mortal outcome. • 2. Angina pectoris (AP) • 2.1 Stable angina at exertion. • 2.1.1 Stable angina at exertion( functional class should be determined). • 2.1.2 Stable angina at exertionin angiographically intact vessels (coronary syndrome X). Clinical forms of IHD

  4. 2.2. Angiospastic angina (angina in rest, spontaneous, variant, Prinzmetals’ angina) • 2.3. Unstable angina. • 2.3.1. Primary angina. • 2.3.2. Progressive angina. • 3. MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (МI) • 4. CARDIOSCLEROSIS (postinfarctional, focal and diffuse) • 5. MYOCARDIAL ASCHEMIA WITHOUT PAIN • 6. CARDIAC RRHYTHM DISORDERS (form) • 7. HEART FAILURE (stage, functional class)

  5. Smoking • alcohol abuse • high arterial pressure • Dislipidemia • Diabetes mellitus • Obesity • Excessive consumption of animal fats • thrombogenic factors • Lack of physical activity RISK FACTORS

  6. 85 % - stenotic atherosclerosis of coronary arteries • 10 % - spasm of coronary arteries • 5 % - transitory thrombocytes aggregates • 100 % - combination of these factors • Morbidity in males is 4 times higher than in females Causes of IHD

  7. Angina is attack of retrosternal pressing pain or chest dyscomfortwhich occures in physical load or emotional strain and is caused by myocardial ischemia. Angina pectoris

  8. Provoking factors: • physical load; • Emotional strain; • cold; • overeating; • smoking; Factors which decrease pain: • Refuse of physical load; • Nitroglycerin/ • Patient try to stay or lie down in attack.

  9. Occurs in the same provoking factors, is often follows with the same complains and changes on ECG. Stable angina at exertion

  10. І FC – attacks occur in a whery high load 1 – 2 times a year. Coronary arteries lumen is narrowed not more than on 50 %. • ІІ FC – attacks occur in walking on the plane surface on the diastance more than 500м, in going more than on 1 floorupstairs 2 – 3 times a week. Coronary arteries lumen is narrowed not more than on 75%. • ІІІ FC – attacks occur in walking on the plane surface on the diastance200 – 300 м, in going 1 floorupstairs.Postinfarctional angina. Coronary arteries lumen is narrowed more than on 75%. • ІVFC – attacks occur in walking on the plane surface on the diastance less than on 100 м, in rest. Combination of coronary and myocardial insufficiency. Complete obturation of coronary arteries. AP functional classes

  11. The major sign of stenocardia is attack-like pain in the area of heart. It has squeezing, cutting or burning character with localization behind a breastbone, irradiates in a left arm (left shoulder-blade, left half of neck, lower jaw, sometimes – in a right shoulder or shoulder-blade). Duration of pain of 5-10 min (more frequently – 2-5 min). Clinical pattern

  12. This is a stable angina at exertion when small coronary arteries are affected. • Clinical pattern is the same as for stable angina but coronarography does not show obturation of coronary arteries. Coronary syndrome X

  13. Caused by spasm of coronal arteries. Arises up in young persons, mainly at night, in rest, when tone of vagus nerve prevails. Duration of attack till 30 min, during this time ECG shows changes typical for MI (depression of ST segment) which disappear after stopping of attack or application of spasmolysants. Nitrates are uneffective with the purpose of removal of attacks. Angiospastic angina

  14. Unstable angina

  15. This is a result of myocardial ischemia caused by thrombosis of coronaty artery and its complete occlusion. • The syndrome includes: • 1. Unstable angina pectoris. • Non-Q myocardial infarction. • 3. Q- myocardial infarction. Acute coronary syndrome

  16. At a stenocardia which arose up first, the attacks of pain are observed during 28 days for persons, which did not have clinical signs of stenocardia before. Usually this is angina at exertion. • Progressing angina is the state, at which duration, intensity and frequency of anginal attacks, grow in a dynamics, and the usual dose of medications which take off an attack becomes insufficient, that requires its permanent increase. Unstable angina pectoris

  17. Characteristic for progressing stenocardia is pressing pain behind the sternum, which periodically calms down and grows, is not removed by nitrates, is accompanied with swweating, dyspnea, arrhythmia, fear of death. The episodes of attacks of anginal pain become more frequent, and periods between attacks shorten. • Every next attack is heavier, than previous. Nitrates (nitroglycerine, Nitrosorbidum), which removed the attacks of anginal pain before, are uneffective, although a patient uses considerably increased their amount.

  18. Associated manifestations • Pain can arise up not obviously due to emotional or physical loading, but also in rest. Sometimes only narcotic facilities remove him. On a background a stenocardia there can be an attack of sharp left-ventricular insufficiency with dyspnea, dry cough, bubbling in the chest.

  19. functional tests: • - exposure to cold; • - test with hyperwentilation; tests with dynamic physical load: • а) veloergometry; • б) tredmile test; emotional stress-test; pharmacological tests; • а) test with dityridamole; • б) test with isadrine; • в) test with ergometrine; transesophageat atrial electrostimulation; daily ECG-mpnitoring coronary angiography. Diagnostics of angina pectoris

  20. Tests with physical load

  21. Echocardiography

  22. Acute myocardial infarction with the presence of wave Q (transmural). • Acute myocardial infarction without Q wave. • Acute subendocardial myocardial infarction. • Acute myocardial infarction (undefined). • Recurrent myocardial infarction. • Repeated myocardial infarction. • Acute coronary insufficiency. Classification of IM

  23. It is necrosis of area cardiac to the  muscle, that is predefined by an ischemia that arises up sharply as a result of disparity of coronal blood stream  to the requirements of myocardium in oxygen. Myocardial infarction (MI)

  24. 85 % - stenotic atherosclerosis of coronary arteries • 10 % - spasm of coronary arteries • 5 % - transitory thrombocytes aggregates • 100 % - combination of these factors • Morbidity in males is 4 times higher than in females Causes of IHD

  25. Smoking • Dyslipidemia • Arterial hypertension • Diabetes mellitus • Obesity • Dietary factors • Thrombogenic factors • Lack of physical activity • Alcohol abuse Provocation factors

  26. The accumulation of cholesterol in the vascular wall - atherosclerotic plaque

  27. Schematic of MI: 1 - subendocardial 2 - transmural 3 - subepicardial 4 - intramural 2

  28. Time of occurrence: • -primary; • -second (after 1 month. following the first); • - recurrent (in the range of 72 hours. Before 28 days after the first). Myocardial infarction can be:

  29. Anginousvariant • Abdominal variant • Asthmatic variant • Arrythmiccariant • Cerebral variant • Asymptomatic variant Clinical variants of MI

  30. Pain pattern simillar to angina pectoris but pain intensity is much more severe that is why nitrates can’t release pain. Pain duration is longer. Clinics – main symptom

  31. If patient feels pain, you must ask him about: • 1. The nature of pain. • 2. Localization. • 3. Duration. • 4. Irradiation. • 5. Contact with the physical, emotional stress, movements, breathing, eating, and other factors. • 6. Effect of different drugs on pain.

  32. Pain syndrom

  33. Pain syndrom

  34. The second severity of symptoms is dyspnea. It may be accompanied by pain or be the only sign of MI.

  35. Next complains can be tachycardia, different arrhythmias, high temperature, swelling.

  36. Typical history and clinical presentation. • Characteristic of ECG changes. • There are three zones on ECG: •    - Zone of ischemia - negative or high T wave; •    - Zone of damage - shift segment S-T; •    - Zone of necrosis – Q wave larger then ¼ R wave Diagnosis of MI:

  37. Shows the process of rapid ventricular repolarisation. • Always positive in I - II, aVF, V2 - V6. • In the third, aVL, V1 can be positive or negative. • Duration 0.12 - 0.16 s, amplitude 2.5 - 6mm. Wave T

  38. It is excitation interventricular septum. • Duration to 0.03 sec., height does not exceed ¼ wave R. • Sometimes can not register. • Registration Q wave even small amplitude in leads V1 - V3 pathology. Wave Q

  39. І. Superacute (before the development of necrosis) – clinical pattern of prolonged attack of anginous pain (duration 30 min – 2 hours). Stages of MI

  40. ІІ. Acute stage(development of myocardial necrosis) – 2 – 7 days • - pain disappears; • - manifestation of heart failure Acute stage