Cell Energy The Sun is the source of all energy on Earth.
Photosynthesis • The Process in which three abiotic factors ( sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water) make an organic molecule (glucose) and oxygen
Autotroph=Self FeederProducers because make their own food 1. Chemosynthesis-use elements like sulfur to make energy. (bacteria at hydrothermal ocean vents deep on the ocean floor)
Photosynthesis-process in which inorganic substances (carbon dioxide and water) and solar energy are converted into an organic substance (glucose). sunlight 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Chlorophyll enzymes Reactants- what goes into the recipe Products- what comes out
Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts Chlorophyll is the green pigment in the chloroplast that traps sunlight • Thylakoid contains chlorophyll. • Stroma- syrup • Grana- stack of thylakoids like a pancake stack. • Light Dependent reaction in thylakoid • Photolysis-light splits water releasing oxygen through the stomata of the leaf
Dark Reaction, Light Independent Reaction, Calvin Cycle • Carbon Dioxide is converted into glucose in the stroma.
Spectrum of visible light- ROY G. BIV • We see reflected light. Plants are green in color so this wavelength of light is used least in photosynthesis because it is reflected.
The most used wavelengths of light in photosynthesis are red and blue. • Most photosynthesis takes place in the leaves of plants because they are green, large and flat increasing the surface area for sunlight to be absorbed.
Chromotography- to write with color. The process of seperating pigments in plants using a solvent. (alcohol) • Plants use other pigments in photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is the main one. Phycocyanins (purple) and carotene (orange) are the others.
Elodea Lab that was drawn on the board. What type of gas make up the air bubbles in the lab? • What color lamp would give the best results for photosynthesis? • Draw a graph for air bubbles vs the distance from the light source. • What will happen if you cover the leaf with black paper? • Many glucose molecules hooked together form what organic molecule in plants? In animals?
Cellular Respiration • Occurs in the mitochondria of BOTH PLANTS AND ANIMALS • The chemical bonds in glucose are broken releasing energy ATP (adenosine triphophate) • All That Power
ADP + P ATP • ATP-P ADP + Energy • ADP=Adenosine Diphosphate • ATP=Adenosine Triphosphate
Adenosine TriPhosphate • All That Power • Stores energy in a high energy bond between the last two • phosphates
Mitochondria Inner membrane that forms cristae increases surface area so that more cellular respiration can take place.
2 types of cellular respiration • Aerobic Respiration- in the presence of oxygen • Anaerobic Respiration- without oxygen
Aerobic Respiration-Oxygen is present • C6H12O6 +6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O+ 36ATP-38ATP • 3 Steps • Glycolysis • Krebs Cycle • Electron Transport Chain
1. Glycolysis • Glucose is split into Pyruvic Acid (split in half or 2, 3-carbon molecules) • cytoplasm
2.Krebs or Citric Acid Cycle • Carbon Dioxide molecules made in mitochondria
3.Electron Transport Chain • Energy made • 38 ATP Molecules made
2 types of Anaerobic Respiration • A. Alcoholic Fermentation 2ATP • Happens in Yeasts • Makes Alcohol and Bread Rise • Gives off CO2 CO2 Yeast and H2O
2 types of Anaerobic Respiration • B. Lactic Acid Fermentation • Builds Up in muscle cells that do not have enough oxygen making muscles sore and tired