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The Revolutionary War

The Revolutionary War

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The Revolutionary War

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  1. The Revolutionary War

  2. The Second Continental Congress • Called as result of fighting in Massachusetts • Met in Philadelphia (May, 1775) • Radicals (John & Sam Adams, Patrick Henry, etc.) wanted war • Moderates (John Dickinson – PA) looking for reconciliation

  3. The Second Continental Congress • Dickinson’s Olive Branch Petition • Loyalty to King George III • Asked for repeal of oppressive legislation • King’s response • Refused to receive Olive Branch Petition • determined to crush rebellion

  4. STOP TAKING NOTES NOW

  5. The Second Continental Congress • Fighting continues • Breeds and Bunker Hills (Boston) • Patriot attempt at Quebec • Capture Montreal • Fail to capture Quebec City • Virginia and the Carolinas rebel • Washington commander of Colonial forces • Merchants refused British goods

  6. Start TAKING NOTES NOW

  7. Thomas Paine: Common Sense • Many Americans • angry with Parliament • still loyal to King • Thomas Paine • Emigrated from England (1774) • Radical • Common Sense(January, 1776) • Built on • John Locke and Glorious Revolution • Great Awakening: all equal in the eyes of God • root of the problem was monarchy

  8. Declaration of Independence (1776)

  9. On the Eve of the Revolution

  10. Revolutionary War: Great Britain American Colonies • Advantages • Large economy/world empire • Well established government - Constitutional Monarchy • Professional Army • Large Royal Navy • Disadvantages • Long lines of Communication • Fighting on “foreign” soil • Advantages • Fighting on “Home Turf” • Ready market of resources • Disadvantages • Weak government: Continental Congress • Economy designed to support Britain (mercantilism) • Disunity - Loyalists or Tories = 1/3 of population

  11. Exports & Imports: 1768-1783

  12. WholesalePriceIndex:1770-1789

  13. Loyalist Strongholds

  14. STOP TAKING NOTES NOW

  15. Strategies: • British • Command of the Sea • Blockade American ports • Transport troops to areas of rebellion (mobility) • Hudson River Valley • Cut off New England from middle and southern colonies • Rally Loyalist Support in South • American • War of Attrition • Wear down British forces • Diplomacy • Gain European allies with large navies - France • Commerce Raiding • Privateering

  16. Phase I:The Northern Campaign[1775-1776]

  17. Phase II: • NY & PA[1777-1778]

  18. General Washington – 1776-78: • Defense of New York from British invasion. • Prevent British from dividing colonies • Continental Army defeated and forced to retreat toward Philadelphia • Valley Forge • Washington crosses the Delaware • Trenton • Princeton • Continental Army remains a threat to the British

  19. Washington Crossing the Delaware

  20. Battle of Saratoga: • Americans defeat and capture General John Burgoyne in upstate New York • Turning point of the war • French enter the war as America’s ally • French Navy: 80 ships of the line • Small American rebellion becomes major world war • Great Britain faces multiple enemies: • 1775 American Colonies • 1778 France and Spain • 1780 Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Prussia, Austria, and Portugal form an Armed Neutrality

  21. Franco-American Treaty of 1778 • Permanent, defensive alliance • France looking for revenge from French & Indian War • American contingent led by Ben Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee • French Foreign Minister Comte de Vergennes convinces King Louis XVI to support Americans • France agreed to fight until U.S. independence achieved • America would recognize French conquests in West Indies

  22. Why do the french want to get involved?

  23. Lafayette Rochambeau Franco-American Alliance Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes

  24. Phase III: The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]

  25. Southern Strategy • Nathanael Greene commander in Carolinas and Georgia • Little over 1,000 Continentals and bands of ill-disciplined militia against Cornwallis’ 10,000 men • Had to create circumstances to achieve success • Guerilla warfare

  26. Cowpens • Greene divided army • Allowed him to better feed own men, sustain militia, harass British • Tempted Cornwallis to divide main body, making it more vulnerable • Cornwallis did this in Jan 1781, sending 1,100 men (commanded by Tarleton) to attack Greene’s western division (commanded by Daniel Morgan)

  27. Cowpens • Americans suffered 6.2% losses (12 killed and 60 wounded) • British suffered 90% losses • Cornwallis became obsessed with Morgan and turned to pursue him • Morgan retreated into Virginia • In a month Cornwallis had marched 225 miles without achieving decisive battle

  28. Yorktown • From Aug 21 to Sept 26, 1781 Washington and Rochambeau (French) marched their armies from New York to Virginia • Simultaneously, De Grasse (French) sealed off the Chesapeake with the Navy • Objective was to trap and defeat Cornwallis’ army on the York Peninsula

  29. Yorktown • Battle would begin with two parallel siege lines followed by an assault • Allies had an overwhelming advantage in numbers (16,000 to fewer than 8,000) • On Oct 19, the British surrendered and in Sept. 1783 they formally recognized American independence

  30. STart TAKING NOTES NOW

  31. Did the Americans win? Did the British lose?

  32. Treaty of Paris, 1783 • American Delegation Benjamin Franklin John Adams John Jay

  33. Treaty of Paris, 1783 • Terms: • British recognition of United States • U.S. granted territory east of Mississippi • Granted to native tribes after French and Indian War • Loyalist property returned • Some ended up being auctioned to pay off debt • Pre-war colonial debts to be paid • US fishing rights off Grand Banks • Florida returned to Spain by separate treaty

  34. North America After theTreaty of Paris, 1783

  35. Treaty of Paris, 1783 • What did it mean for • Women • Contributed to war effort through clothing for troops • Often ran farms while men were away • Blacks • In south • Many joined British cause to escape slavery • Slavery kept for fear of blacks outnumbering whites and taking control • In north • Many joined patriot cause • Beginning of emancipation in north (relatively few blacks anyway) • Loyalists • Many fled to Canada, West Indies, or back to Britain • Those who stayed had property reinstituted

  36. Was the American Revolution inevitable?