The Revolutionary War AKA: The American Revolution OR The War of Independence
Events Leading Up to the War Stamp Act Townshend Acts Proclamation of 1763
Important People King George III- (1738-1820) King of England. Instrumental in ending French and Indian War with the Treaty of Paris, 1763. Strong supporter of policies leading to American Revolution and opposed the independence of the colonies. After loss of colonies, he considered leaving the throne.
Important People Phyllis Wheatley-(1753-1784) Enslaved African American who eventually gained her freedom. Wrote a poem in praise of King George III repealing the Stamp Act. Later wrote other poems and plays supporting American independence
BOSTON Massacre Who: Colonist and British soldiers in Boston What: Colonists were shot after taunting British soldiers. FIVE dead. Significance: Increased tensions throughout the colonies. One of the first events that happened before the war that began five years later.
More EVENTS Leading Up to the War Tea Monopoly Gaspee Incident Intolerable Acts
BOSTON TEA PARTY WHO: Samuel Adams and Paul Revere WHATt: They led Patriots dressed as Mohawk Indians in throwing tea into the Boston Harbor to protest the tea tax. SIGNIFICANCE: It was the final act of resistance for the colonists to a tax that represented British desire to control. The Boston Harbor was closed, and the Intolerable Acts followed which closed all trade into and out of Boston. The colonists responded by calling the First Continental Congress.
Loyalists VS. Patriot Let’s make PEACE with the Brits! (About 1/3 of the Colonists) We WANT a REVOLUTION! (About 1/3 of the colonists) About 1/3 of the Colonists tried to stay out of it, remaining NEUTRAL!
Important People Samuel Adams- (1722-1803) A major leader and activist in the American Revolution, led protest against the Stamp Act, founder of the Sons of Liberty, principal organizer of the Boston Tea Party, member of the Continental Congress, signer of the Declaration of Independence.
1st continental congress Who: Delegates from all colonies except Georgia What: They met to discuss problems with Great Britain and to talk about moving toward independence. Significance: The colonists worked together for the first time as a unified 13 colonies. They sent a repeal to the British concerning the Intolerable Acts. KEY PEOPLE: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Patrick Henry, john Jay, Joseph Galloway, John Dickenson
Important People Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Statesman, scientist, inventor, publisher of the Pennsylvania Gazette, author of Poor Richard's Almanac, member of the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, signer of the Declaration of Independence, first U.S. Postmaster General, American commissioner to Paris.
Important People John Adams (1735-1826) Founding father. Second President of the United States, first vice-president of the U.S., member of the Continental Congress, helped draft the Declaration of Independence, helped negotiate the treaty of Paris with England in 1783.
Important People Patrick Henry-(1736-1799) Revolutionary War orator and statesman. In a speech he ecouraged armed resistance against the British; he declared: "Give me liberty, or give me death!"
Battles- Lexington and concord Who: British Regulars and Patriots (the Massachusetts Militia) What: Armed conflicts- British were given orders to capture and destroy the military supplies of the Massachusetts militia Signficance: They were the first armed battles of the Revolutionary War. The Seige of Boston resulted after the British withdrew to Charlestown
Important People Paul Revere- (1734-1818) AMERICAN SILVERSMITH, PATRIOT, AND MEMBER OF THE SONS OF LIBERTY, FAMOUS FOR HIS MIDNIGHT RIDE.
Important People Thomas Paine-(1737-1809) Revolutionary War writer, gained fame as author of Common Sense encouraging colonists to stand up for their independence.
2nd Continental Congress WHO: Delegates from all 13 colonies. WHAT: In response to the Battles of Lexington and Concord to organize themselves and prepare for whatever it took to become a separate, independent nation. SIGNIFICANCE: Founded the Continental Army and placed George Washington in command. Eventually issued the Declaration of Independence and served as the provisional government of the United States during and immediately after the war.
Important People Lord Cornwallis- (1738-1805) British general and colonial governor, served with distinction in American Revolution, won battle of Brandywine, captured Philadelphia in 1777 and Charleston in 1780, forced to surrender to Washington at Yorktown in 1781 ending the war.
Important People George Washington (1732-1799) Founding father. Member of the Continental Congress, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, presiding officer of the Constitutional Convention, first President of the United States.
The Declaration of Independence Power: The government receives its power from the people Rights: People have “certain unalienable rights” (rights that cannot be taken away)- to life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness. Protection of Rights: People set up the government to protect those rights. Government Change: People have a right and a duty to change a government that violates their rights.
Important People Thomas Jefferrson-(1743-1826) Founding father. Author of the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia statute for religious freedom, member of the Continental Congress, statesman, diplomat, Secretary of State, Vice-President, 3rd President of the United States, founder of the University of Virginia.
Approval of the Declaration of Independence WHO: 13 Colonies WHAT: The colonies declared independence from Great Britain on July 4, 1776 SIGNIFICANCE: The colonies announced to Great Briatain that they were no longer part of the British empire. They knew that if they were unsuccessful, they would be treated as traitors and executed. KEY PEOPLE: Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman
Battles- Saratoga WHO: British fighting American troops WHAT: An American victory Significance: This was the turning point in the war and brought France into the war as an American ally, providing supplies and ammunition- a key to the final American victory.
Battles- Surrender at Yorktown WHO: General George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau, and Lord Cornwallis WHAT: This was the colonial victory over the forces of Lord Cornwallis SIGNIFICANCE: It marked the end of the Revolutionary War
Signing of the Treaty of Paris WHO: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay (representing the United States) signed at the Hotel d’York in France. British Parliament member David Hartley signed representing the British Monarch, King George III WHAT: Treaty signed on September 3, 1783 between Great Britain and the United States of America SIGNIFICANCE: Great Britain recognized American independence in this treaty.
Important People Mercy Otis Warren- (1728-1814) Political writer of the American Revolution. She was a historian for this period, a poet, and a playwright. Her writing encouraged the colonists to pursue their independence.
Other Important People • John Hancock • Alexander Hamilton • Henry Knox • Marquis de LAFAYETTE • Nathanial Greene • Molly Pitcher • James Madison • Anthony Wayne
Other Battles/Places • Trenton • Princeton • Valley Forge • Oriskany • Brandywine • Germantown • Bunker Hill (Breeds Hill) • Kings Mountain • Cowpens