An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 Mr. Knowles Anatomy and Physiology Liberty Senior High School
A Brief Outline I. The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology A. Definitions B. Relationship II. Common Themes in Anat. and Phys. A. Structure and Function B. Levels of Organization C. Homeostasis and System Regulation
Anatomy “to cut open”- the study of internal and external structures. Examples are gross and microscopic anatomy. Physiology Study of how anatomical structures perform vital functions. Examples are physiologists and therapists. What is Anatomy and Physiology?
Two Perspectives • The Anatomist- studies a truck by measuring, photographing, and taking apart its various parts.
Two Perspectives • The Physiologist- would study the truck by driving it, testing the brakes to determine how they work, and figure out how the engine performs.
Early Anatomists • Hippocrates- Greek philosopher and physician, 400 B.C. • Hippocratic Oath • Four “Humours” of the body. • Observations, little Experimentation
Claudius Galenus (Galen) • Roman anatomist during the 1st Century. • Described the human anatomy in detail. • Little understanding of physiology.
Vesalius • 16th Century anatomist who provided exquisite detail of systems. • Experimentation with domestic animals. To determine function. • Assumed Galen to be correct; not questioned.
William Harvey • 17th Century English anatomist who questioned some of Galen’s conclusions. • Determined how the CV system worked in 1628 publication. • Used experimentation to prove CV function.
1st Theme: Structure and Function are Related Structure Function
Form and Function are Related • Example: the human elbow joint- ulna (forearm) and the humerus bone of upper arm form a hinge joint. • Both at macroscopic and microscopic levels.
2nd Theme: Levels of Organization • Atoms/chemicals form the Molecular Level. • Organelles organized into the Cellular Level. • Cells are organized into a Tissue Level. • Several tissues form the Organ Level. • Several organs form the Organ System Level. • Organ systems function together for the Organism
Levels of Organization • Functional and structural relationship between the levels. • Example: The Cardiovascular System.
What functional characteristics must all organisms do in order to live? There are 8 functions. Design a creature!
1. Maintain Boundaries • Organisms must maintain boundaries to separate internal and external environments. • Protection from pathogens, dessication (loss of water), harmful chemicals. • Regulation.
2. Movement • Includes moving the body through the external environment and materials through the internal environment. • Even at the cellular level. • Muscular and skeletal.
3. Responsiveness • Sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and react to them. • Nervous, muscular, and skeletal
4. Digestion • Breaking down ingested foods into molecules the body can use for growth and maintenance. • Digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine.
5. Metabolism • Breaking down complex molecules simple ones for building blocks. • Making simple ones complex ones. • Simple Molecules Energy • Several systems.
6. Excretion • Removing toxic solid, liquid, and gases. • Examples are indigestible solids, urea, and CO2. • Digestive, urinary, and respiratory systems.
7. Reproduction • Occurs at the cellular and organismal levels. • Includes the reproductive, endocrine, nervous, and muscular.
8. Growth • Increase in size of body or tissue. • Increase in the number of cells in all systems.
Nervous Cardiovascular Respiratory Integumentary Endocrine Muscle Skeletal Processing center Internal transport Gas exchange Protection, regul. Communication Movement Support Some Organ Systems
How are Organ Systems Related? Processing Centers Integumentary System Respiratory System CV System
Homeostatic Regulation • Homeostasis- The existence of a stable internal environment. • Has 3 Parts: Receptor: a sensor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus. Control Center: receives and processes the information supplied by the receptor. Effector: a cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center and whose activity opposes or enhances the original stimulus.
Negative Feedback: when the effector(s) activated by the control center oppose or eliminate stimulus. Many examples; most common feedback system. Positive Feedback: initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances its effects. Labor Contractions Blood Clotting Two Types of Homeostasis
Show me an example of homeostasis! The New Living Body-Homeostasis, 1995, VT 574.1 HOM