WHO/UNEP WORKSHOP ON PUBLIC HEALTH PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT IN THE EASTERN MEDITERANEAN REGION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE STOCKGOLM CONVENTION ON ORGANIC POLLUTANTS Amman – Jordan 7-11/12/2003 Country Report /Jordan Dr. Mohammed Obaidat V-B.D program manager MOH/Jordan
Responsibilities of Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) • Legislation • Registration : committee: - MOA, MOH, MOE, R.S.A,J.U • Inspection & Surveillance : Procurement, licensing, production, formulation, packing, storage, transport and distribution. - Factories for local industry of insecticides. - Imported insecticides. • Quality control: - Samples examined in laboratories: Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Scientific Society and Jordan University. • - Field inspection
Users • MOA : use in agriculture as part of I.P.M. and control of termites by O.P • Municipalities: Nuisance caused by mosquitoes, flies and other pests used mainly outdoors by space spraying (U.L.V and thermal fogging) Insecticides: OP, cerbamates and pyrethroids. • Use in Waste water treatment plantations for control of mosquitoes larvae by use of IGRs (methoprin, Diflubenzorone). • Use in veterinary services for livestock disinsectization: OP • Use in private sector: monitoring by MOA : specification • Ministry of Health: Prevention and control of vector-born diseases
VBD in Jordan are not a priority and not considered as a public health problem. Malaria was eradicated in 1970 and the country still free of local transmission but there still a potential for re-introduction of the disease. Receptive areas are Jordan valley, Al-Karak lowlands and valleys connected to them with 13 species of Anopheles mosquitoes from which 3 species were proved to be vectors for the disease.
Malaria control program has 2 main components: • Early detection and treatment of imported case by both ACD and PCD with 150-200 cases every year. • Vetor control: Evidence based Integrated vector control • Source reduction: • Cimented canals for irrigation • Intermittent irrigation • Dripping irrigation • Self protection: • Better housing and conditions of life • Screens • Inspection of houses by MOH and Municipalities • Surveillance of Anopheles mosquitoes: • Density of larvae in breeding sites (% of larvae/drip) • Man landing rates • Susceptibility to insecticides
Use of temephos 0.5 PPM as larvicide • Use of IGRs (Diflubenzorone) • Use of deltamethrin/space spraying around imported cases in receptive areas only.
Schistosomiasis control program • Early detection & treatment of imported cases: ACD,PCD. • Annual screening of high risk-group in high-risk areas for case detection. • Surveillance of water-bodies for snail host (B. Truncates) and use of Niclosamide 1PPM for positive sites where feasible. • Health education for high risk groups.
Leishmaniasis in Jordan • No visceral Leishmaniasis. • Cutanous Leishmaniasis in Jordan is a zoonotic disease; the parasite is Leishmania major. The animal reservoir is psamomys obesus, the vector is phlebotomus papattasi sandfly which use the reservoir host burrows as breeding site. • Destruction of burrows and clearance of chenopodiecea plants used for food by the reservoir host are the main protective measures used. • The use of Insecticides for other purposes is useful for sandflies. • MOH/Jordan do not use insecticides to control leishmaniasis except in outbreaks.
Other vector-born diseases: • No ARBO-Virus diseases recorded in Jordan • No rift-valley fever cases • No west-nile fever cases • Control of flies: IVC • Legislation for organic materials (manure) (Ministry of Agriculture) • Collection and dumping of solid wastes: Municipalities • Health Inspection and education: MOH, Municipalities, MOA • Self protection: Better housing.
Insecticides POPs in Jordan • Prohibition of use (last1992) • Obsolete Stocks: -Dialidrin MOA 170kg -D.D.T MOH 23 Tons • Storage: Good conditions • Packing & Emballage: Insufficent for transport • Transport: not available and need help of donners • Disposal: not available and need help of donners • Conventions: Agreement on 3 conventions (Roterdam, Basel & Stockholm) • Stockholm convention was signed but not yet ratified. • NIP project for POPs: still on going • Insecticide POPs committee still working as planned for.
Responsibilities of MOE • Responsible with MOA for legislation, Registration • Responsible for control of environmental pollution by insecticides • Disposal of expired insecticides and POPs • Responsible with MOH for human hazards due to insecticides • NIP on POPs
Constraints and Needs • Human resources capacity building • Training of staff: Entomologists • Inter-sectorel coordination • Regional and inter-national coordination • Community participation • Partnerships • Sufficient Resources • Support to IVM approach to reduce reliance on insecticides in VBD control • Monitoring resistance to insecticides