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Population Ecology (chapter 14 -- sect 3 and 4) Intro to Chapter 16 – Human pops

Population Ecology (chapter 14 -- sect 3 and 4) Intro to Chapter 16 – Human pops Each population has A Density A Dispersion A Reproductive Strategy. Population. A group of the same species of organism living in the same place. Understand food chains and food webs

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Population Ecology (chapter 14 -- sect 3 and 4) Intro to Chapter 16 – Human pops

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  1. Population Ecology (chapter 14 -- sect 3 and 4) Intro to Chapter 16 – Human pops Each population has A Density A Dispersion A Reproductive Strategy

  2. Population • A group of the same species of organism living in the same place • Understand food chains and food webs • What might effect the survival of THIS group of dolphins?

  3. Characteristics of Populations • 4 Major Characteristics of Populations: • Geographic Distribution • Density • Growth Rate • Age Structure

  4. 1. Geographic Distribution • Area inhabited by a population *remember, there are also ecological equivalents in similar ecosystems around the planet, but if they are not in the same habitat, they are NOT the same population!

  5. Population dispersion • Way in which individuals of a population are spread in an area or a volume 3 types: Dispersion patterns -- page 437 in textbook Clumped Uniform Random

  6. 2. Population Density • # of individuals in population per unit area • (# individuals) / (area) • Varies depending on species in ecosystem • Increase density = increase crowdedness

  7. Example: • 150 bullfrogs live in a pond that covers an area of 3 square kilometers. What is the bullfrog’s population density?

  8. Answer: • 50 bullfrogs per square kilometer

  9. 3. Growth Rate • How fast a population is growing/shrinking

  10. Negative & Positive Growth • Positive growth: net increase • Total penguin population was 1200 at the beginning of the year, now is 1600. • Negative growth: net decrease • 250 penguin chicks died during the year.

  11. The maximum rate at which the population of a given species can increase when there are no limits on its growth. “living” potential Biotic Potential It is not possible for a population to increase FOREVER – there are limitations!

  12. Factors affecting population growth • Immigration: • movement into an area • Emigration: • movement out of an area ***approach maturity & move out ***shortage of resources • Birth Rate • Change in # births • Death Rate • Change in # deaths ***increase/decrease birth & death rates ***birth = death?

  13. Types of Population Growth • Exponential Growth • Logistic Growth

  14. 1. Exponential Growth • J-shaped curve • reproduce at a constant rate • Slowly at first, then larger until approaches infinitely large size. • ideal conditions • unlimited resources

  15. 2. Logistic Growth • S-shaped curve • Slow increase, larger increase when large number of resources, then slows when resources become less available, growth slows/stops, oscillates around carrying capacity. • Carrying Capacity- • largest # individuals environment can support • Tells size of population when average growth rate reaches zero. How could growth slow or stop?

  16. How population growth may slow: • Birth rate decreases • Death Rate Increases • Both occur at the same rate • Reason why these change  Limiting factors

  17. Limiting Factors • causes population growth to decrease

  18. 1. Density Independent Factors • Do not depend on population size • Ex: • Unusual weather • natural disasters • seasonal cycles • damming rivers • clear-cutting forests

  19. 2. Density-Dependent Factors • depends on population size. Competition Predation Parasites Diseases Competition Predation Parasites Diseases larger populations are more affected by density-dependent factors (orgs are closer together)

  20. Application • Q1: Think about the black racer snake populations in Georgia. Once a pair of mice start reproducing, what would happen to the black racer snake populations, and why?

  21. Answer • They will increase because there will be more mice to feed them. • Q2: If the mice population dies off, what would happen to the snake populations, and why?

  22. Answer: • The snake populations would decrease, because there would be fewer mice to eat. • GRAPH this senario! • What is the GENERAL shape and height of each curve shown…

  23. Below is called a TRACKING GRAPH – because the peaks of the predators always follow the peaks of the prey

  24. 2a. Competition • compete for resources when population becomes overcrowded. I only have 5 bottles left

  25. Types of Competition • Interspecific • Intraspecific

  26. Interspecific Competition Competition between different species for the same resources. wildebeast and rhino vultures and hyenas

  27. Intraspecific Competition • Competition between members of same species for similar resources. herons lions Bunchgrass in Mojave Desert – roots compete

  28. 1b. Parasitism and Disease • Parasite or disease-causing organism takes nourishment from host, weakens/kills host • spreads quicker w/ greater density. Wasp Cocoons This larval sphinx moth has been attacked by a parasitic wasp. The wasp inserted its eggs beneath the moth’s skin. After hatching, the wasp larvae fed on their host internally until they appeared as white cocoons on its back.

  29. 1c. Predation • Predator-prey interactions • Increase prey, increase predator

  30. Demography • Study of human population growth characteristics • Looks at growth rate, age structure, geographic distribution • Can tell if pop is growing by looking at the difference between the birth rate and the death rate • In US, death rate is declining, life expectancy is increasing, fertility rate is decreasing – WHY?

  31. Age-Structure diagramsor Population Pyramids • Describes how many individuals of different ages make up a population • Population Pyramids, or Age-Structure Diagrams, show age structure in a population. • Populations with large numbers of young offspring have greater potential for rapid growth

  32. Comparing Human Populations… Expansive Constrictive Near Stationary

  33. Patterns of Population Growth… • TheDemographic transition- A change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates.

  34. Human Population on Earth • Thomas Malthus – economist, late 1700’s *wrote an essay that stated that human population was growing faster than the Earth’s resource could support Today’s human population exceeds 6 billion…

  35. Human Population -- predictions

  36. Carrying capacity and humans • Carrying capacity for human pop has changed due to technology Due to improvements in: Agriculture, transportation, medicine, sanitation

  37. Nonrenewable vs. renewable resources • Nonrewable – used faster than they form ex. Coal and oil • Renewable – cannot be used up or can replentish themselves over time ex. Wind energy If not used carefully, renewable COULD become nonrenewable Ex. Water – pollution often makes it unusable

  38. U.S. uses more resources and produces more waste…. • Than any other country on the planet ex. 230 million tons of garbage/year (4.2 lbs per person per day) • Ecological footprint: The amount of land necessary to produce and maintain enough food and water, shelter, energy, and waste Depends on: amount and efficiency of resource use, and the amount and toxicity of waste produced See textbook page 487 for world view

  39. Calculate YOUR ecological footprint

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