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DEMOCRATIC PowerPoint Presentation


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  2. DEMOCRACY …is a form of government in which all the citizens of a nation together determine public policy, the laws and the actions of their state, requiring that all citizens (meeting certain qualifications) have an equal opportunity to express their opinion.

  3. The most common system that is deemed "democratic" in the modern world is parliamentary democracy • in which the voting public takes part in elections and chooses politicians to represent them in a Legislative Assembly. • The members of the assembly then make decisions with a majority vote.


  5. POLITICAL STRUCTURES • Political structures are those structures that run the country and make decisions • The people in charge of these structures are politicians who have been elected

  6. The various democratic structures in South Africa range from national structures, such as parliament, to local community structures • These structures deal with different aspects of governing. • They also give you different ways to participate


  8. NATIONAL GOVERNMENT PARLIAMENT: • Cabinet: President, Deputy President and various ministers • National Assembly • National Council of Provinces Make and carry out laws and policies for the whole country


  10. PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT • Legislature – led by the Speaker • Provincial Government, led by the Premier and Members of the Executive Council (MECs) Make and carry out laws and policies that affect the province only


  12. LOCAL GOVERNMENT • Metropolitan Councils • District Councils • Local Councils • Local Municipalities (divided into wards with ward committees)

  13. Make and carry out by-laws • Provide a democratic and accountable government for local communities • Make sure there are sustainable service to communities (water, electricity, sanitation, refuse removal, roads) • Make sure there is social and economic development • Make sure there is a safe and healthy environment • Encourage communities and community organisations to be involved in Local Government • Plan and budget


  15. TRADITIONAL AUTHORITIES • Help to involve the traditional community with local government in developing integrated development plan • Support municipalities in identifying community needs • Make recommendations about service delivery • Administer traditional community affairs according to custom and tradition


  17. POLITICAL PARTIES • ANC • DA • COPE • IFP • ID • Represent voters • Represent particular interests • Educate and instruct the public on issues

  18. COMMUNITY STRUCTURES People who try to address problems that exist in their communities form organisations that focus on a particular problem or issue that affects the community in a local area, such as ratepayers association or a neighbourhood crime watch organisation

  19. LOCAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURES • Local community structures are public structures • They are not organised by politicians but rather by groups of ordinary citizens. • Local community structures deal with local issues in their area or community.

  20. CIVIC ORGANISATIONS • Are organisations that focus on the needs of people in a local or municipal area. • Civic organisations develop because there is a need for things such as security, service delivery, protection of the environment and other issues that affect the daily lives of the people who live in an area.

  21. The main civic organisations • Non-governmental organisation (NGOs) • Community-based organisations (CBOs) • Faith-based organisations (FBOs)

  22. NGO: Non-governmental Organization These are formal organization that are run on a national or even international level. They have long-term goals and ways in which to address issues in communities, such as HIV/AIDS education and caring for orphans. Usually NGOs pay members of their organization, although some rely on volunteers to help.

  23. Principles and functions • Monitor • Advocate • Assist with service delivery • Represent group of people with common interests and concerns

  24. Community Based Organiszations A CBO is an organization that provides social services at the local level. It is a non- profit organization whose activities are based primarily on volunteer efforts. This means that COBs depend heavily on voluntary contributions for labour, material and financial support.

  25. Faith Based Organizations These are community organizations that address issues in the community; their work is based on religion. FBOs rely on volunteers to be part of their organization.

  26. Process for participation • Get involved • Participate in youth and women’s groups • Neighbourhood watches • School governing bodies • Environmental rights groups • Human rights advocacy groups

  27. Principles and functions of structures and how structures change

  28. CONSTITUTIONS • A constitution is a legal ‘founding document’ • This means that it is the foundation on which an organisation is built • Many structures and organisations have constitutions such as NGOs

  29. A constitution usually states the: • Purpose of the organisation – why it exists • Aims and objectives – what the organisation intends to achieve • Type of organisation, for example, not-for-profit • Membership – who can join, and the duties and rights • Structures and procedures for making decisions, for example, meetings, elections and appointments, • Roles, rights and responsibilities of the people holding specific positions • How the money and assets are controlled • How to close the organisation

  30. Elections and representation of constituencies • National and provincial elections take place every four years. • You vote for political parties in these elections and not individuals • The political party gets a share of seats in Parliament depending on the number of votes it received in the election • Each party then decides on members to fill the seats it has won • This is called a proportional representation voting system

  31. MANDATES • A mandate is the power to act, that voters give their elected leaders • Acts of laws so give mandates • SARS Act no 34 of 1997 gives SARS the mandate to collect taxes • The Broadcasting Act give the SABC a mandate to be a public broadcaster • If the law is changed, then the mandate may change

  32. LOBBYING Lobbying means to try to influence government officials, or any people in a position of power, to make decisions for or against something

  33. Individuals or organisations could lobby the government to change the tax laws • Parents could lobby the school governing body to provide lunches at school • HIV and AIDS activists and organisations could lobby with the President to provide affordable treatment for people who are HIV-positive • A resident’s association could lobby the municipality to create a park

  34. SOME WAYS IN WHICH PEOPLE LOBBY • Writing letters and e-mail to people in power • Holding informal talks with committee members • Holding and attending meetings • Organising petitions • Using Facebook and Twitter to gain support

  35. ADVOCACY • Advocacy is the act or process of supporting a cause or proposal • Citizens or groups, start a campaign to influence the decisions made about a particular issue • They raise awareness about the issue and lobby governement about it

  36. AN ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN CAN RAISE AWARENESS BY: • organising public meetings to inform people about the issue • distributing information leaflets • using the media to gather public support • organising petitions • Writing to members of Parliament and local councilors • Organising marches and demonstrations

  37. HOW AND WHY STRUCTURES CHANGE • The people in them change • Their constitutions change • Their mandates change • They are changed through advocacy and lobbying