Contents:- • What is matter ? • Size of the particles of matter. • Characteristics of particles of matter. • States of matter. • Solids. • Liquids. • Gases. • Pictures comparing three states of matter. • Effect of change of temperature. • Interconversion of three states of matter.
WHAT IS MATTER • Everything in this universe is made up of material which scientists have named “matter”. • Matter is made up of particles. EXAMPLES: Air , food, water, stones, clouds, stars etc.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICLES OF MATTER • Particles of matter have space between them. • The particles of matter are very small- they are small beyond our imagination !!!! • Particles of matter attract each other. • Particles of matter move continuously.
SOLIDS :- Have a definite shape. Have distinct boundaries. Have fixed volume. Have negligible compressibility. Have a tendency to maintain their shape when subjected to outside force. Examples Pen, book , thread, brick etc.
LIQUIDS:- • Have no fixed shape. • Have fixed volume. • Take up the shape of container in which they are kept. • Flow and change shape so they are called fluid. Examples Water , oil , juice , cold drink etc.
GASES:- • Have no fixed shape and volume. • Are highly compressible. • Have large space between particles. • Particles of gases move randomly at high speed. Examples Air ,Oxygen, Nitrogen, CNG etc.
Pictures Comparing Three States of Matter SOLID LIQUID GAS
EFFECT OF CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE • Melting : Solid -> Liquid • Vaporisation : Liquid -> Gas • Condensation : Gas -> Liquid • Freezing : Liquid -> Solid • Sublimation : Solid -> Gas Heat Heat Solid State Liquid State Gaseous State Cool Cool
INTERCONVERSION OF THREE STATES OF MATTER Liquids FUSION SOLIDIFICATION CONDENSATION VAPOURISATION Gases Solids SUBLIMAION