Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Chapter TwoThe Teachings of Christ:The Gospels
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings syp quiz Identify who says (or writes) each quotation and when(your answer should include the correct name and identification, and a one sentence explanation of the setting: • a. “Blessed are you among women…” • b. “He has helped Israel his servant…” • c. “John is his name.”
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Prayer of the WeekThe Hail Mary Hail Mary, full of grace, The Lord is with thee, Blessed art thou among women And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus; Holy Mary, mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death.
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Patron Saint of the WeekGregory the Great (540-604) Who is Gregory the Great? Responsible for: • Benedictine, monastic imprint on Europe • Lasting impact on medieval church - consistency; orthodoxy; beauty; morality • Politically active leadership; worked for poor • Sent Augustine of Canterbury to England • Patron of Portsmouth Abbey and School QUOTATION: "He that hath a talent, let him see that he hide it not; he that hath abundance, let him quicken himself to mercy and generosity; he that hath art and skill, let him do his best to share the use and the utility hereof with his neighbor."
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Red Letter Points • Who is Gregory the Great? • What does “gospel” mean? Give two meanings. • Why are the gospels so important? • Give highlights of Matthew’s gospel • Give highlights of Mark’s gospel • Give highlights of Luke’s gospel • Give highlights of John’s gospel • Discuss the benefits of four gospels over just one.
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings The Gospel/s What does “gospel” mean? Give two meanings. • (1) good news (from Greek: “evangelion”); a term used to acclaim emperor; also used to acclaim God’s good message. • (2) A distinct literary form: a book about the life and teachings of Jesus: intention of this type of writing is to bring forth faith; convey Jesus message in light of effort “to evoke faith and strengthen it.” (Kummel)
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Why are the gospels so important? Why are the gospels so important? • These books have pride of place among NT books (incense; stand; alleluia) since their focus is the life and teachings of Jesus: • “It is common knowledge that among all the Scriptures, even those of the New Testament, the Gospels have a special preeminence, and rightly so, for they are the principal witness for the life and teaching of the incarnate Word, our savior.” - Dei Verbum 18.
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Who are the evangelists? Overview of the four gospels
Overview of the Gospel of Matthew Give highlights of Matthew’s gospel • Date: sometime in the 80’s • Author: unknown • Audience: Jewish Christians • Theme: Jesus as fulfillment of the covenant. • Jesus Christ (Emmanuel: “God is with us”) is the Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament
Overview of the Gospel of Mark Give highlights of Mark’s gospel. • Date: ~ 67-73 AD • Author: unknown • Audience: Non-Jewish, Gentile Christians who were undergoing persecution • Theme: the messiah must suffer for us. • following Jesus often means that a Christian must suffer like Jesus did (“suffering servant”).
Overview of the Gospel of Luke Give highlights of Luke’s gospel • Date: ~ 75-90 AD • Author: a Gentile Christian with some attraction to Judaism; also wrote Acts of the Apostles; highly polished writing style • Audience: largely Gentile Christians • Theme: Jesus is headed to Jerusalem to complete God’s plan of Salvation: • the city of Jerusalem is an important symbol.
Overview of the Gospel of John Give highlights of John’s gospel • Date: likely between 90 and 100 AD • Earliest known fragment of New Testament writing is from John’s Gospel: John Rylands Greek papyrus. • Author: John, the “Beloved Disciple” • Possibly written in several stages and edited by different people who were inspired by John • Audience: diverse group that included Samaritan converts, Gentile Christians and Jewish Christians who were expelled from synagogues • Theme: the cross is the triumph of love. • The love of God is manifest in Christ.
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Four gospels Discuss the benefits of four gospels over just one. • Each evangelist has a perspective on Christ and wants to interpret His message for the reader. • Despite differences, each accepted by church as orthodox, as teaching same Christ: “canonical” • all four avoid extremes in how Christ is portrayed and together provide richer understanding • (e.g., only divine, only human)
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings ICONOGRAPHY Mark: Lion Matthew: young man John: Eagle Luke: ox
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Evangelists (on ivory) Metmuseum
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Why are the evangelists depicted as a young man, lion, ox, and eagle? These icons are based in mystical, symbolic scriptural references that came to be applied to the gospel writers: “…and before the throne there is as it were a sea of glass, like crystal. And round the throne, on each side of the throne, are four living creatures, full of eyes in front and behind: the first living creature like a lion, the second living creature like an ox, the third living creature with the face of a man, and the fourth living creature like a flying eagle…” (Rev 4:6-7; see also Ezekiel)
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings TERMS • Evangelist: one of the writers of a gospel • Orthodox: “correct opinion”; teaching in agreement with accepted truth • Canonical: part of the officially accepted list of books of the Bible • Apocryphal: outside the officially accepted list of books of the Bible • Heresy: a teaching in partial error • Apostasy: a teaching in complete error
Christian Doctrine 1 / Dr. Billings Chapter TwoThe Teachings of Christ:The Gospels(end of 2a)