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  1. Tornados R.T. Schindler

  2. Spring storm and tornadoes in Kansas

  3. Additional Lectures by world experts "Tornadoes" lecture by Lillibridge, Scott R"A Historical Look at Tornadoes: Damage and Death” by Harold Brookswhich have also three more links to online lectures: 1.Development of synthetic severe thunderstorm climatologies2.Tornado deaths in the US and mobile homes3.The distribution of tornadoes by F-scale in time and spaceHarold Brooks “Tornado-Related deaths and injuries due to the May 3, 1999 by Sheryll Brown, Pam Archer,Elizabeth Kruger and corresponding author Sue Mallonee from Injury Prevention Service, Oklahoma State Department of Health

  4. Tornado History

  5. First Tornado Forecast

  6. Tornado A violently rotating column of air (vortex), hanging from a cumulonimbus cloud, with circulation that touches the surface of the earth

  7. Tornado Formation

  8. Supercell Storm • Severe weather occurs as strong downbursts…large hail…occasional flash floods and weak to violent tornadoes • Severe event almost always occur near the updraft interface typically in the rear (southwest) storm flank. Some of the supercells have the interface on the front of the southeast flank • High predictability of occurrence of severe events once a storm is identified as a supercell • Extremely dangerous to public • Extremely dangerous to aviation

  9. The Supercell Tornado forms here

  10. Tornado Facts • Tornados can occur almost anywhere in the world • Duration: a few minutes • Diameter (Avg.): 0.4 km • Length of path (Avg.): 6 km • Funnel can travel from 0 mph up to ~70 mph, usually travels at 30 mph • 99% of all tornados in Northern Hemisphere rotate counterclockwise • Texas is #1 for frequency of tornados per year • Between 1950 and 1995 Texas had 5,722 recorded tornados • Risk of death in a tornado in Texas: 1 in 1,054,267 • Texas cost per person per year for tornados: $3.94

  11. Tornado Myths • A highway overpass is a safe place to take shelter under during a tornado • Opening windows during a tornado will help balance the pressure between the inside and outside of the house and may prevent destruction of the structure • One should seek shelter in the southwest corner of a house or basement

  12. Tornado Oddities • Tornados are reported to routinely carry objects many miles and have: • sucked the frogs out of a pond and dropped them on a town • carried a necktie rack with 10 ties attached 40 miles • carried a flour sack 110 miles from a mill • Tornados also drive objects into other objects and have: • Driven splinters into an iron fire hydrant • Driven straw and grass into telephone poles

  13. When Tornados Occur A typical late afternoon tornado

  14. Where Tornados Occur Tornado Alley covers the Great Plains states

  15. Tornado Wind Speed In 1971, Dr. Fujita developed a way of measuring the winds of a tornado. He reasoned that there was a link between wind speed and the damage caused by a tornado. There are 6 categories of tornados (F0 – F5)

  16. F0 Category

  17. F3 Category • (Strong) winds: (158-206) mph, severe damage • Damage: most trees uprooted, trains overturned, roofs torn off, walls demolished

  18. F5 Category • (Violent) winds: (261- 319) mph, incredible damage; rare Damage: bark peeled off trees, houses lifted off foundations, vehicles travel greater than 100 m through the air

  19. Tornado Occurrence by Category

  20. Tornado Deaths by Category

  21. Tornado Forecasting Meteorologists who predict tornado development analyze the current atmospheric conditions such as: air temp., barometric pressure, the locations of fronts, wind velocities, convection, etc. Probably the most useful tool a meteorologist can use to identify tornados is radar, specifically Doppler radar (WSR-88D)

  22. Tornados on Radar Doppler image of a rain-wrapped tornado

  23. The Life cycle of a Tornado • The “Life Cycle” of a tornado consists of four distinct stages. • These stages were first determined during the Union City, OK tornado of 1973 • Most tornadic events are difficult to classify and may not exhibit stages that are obvious to the observer • Sometimes events become unclear: one tornado weakens another appears, or single event? • Tornados do not “skip” – gaps in damage path may indicate a temporary weakening in intensity

  24. Beginning Stage: Tornado begins as a rotating wall cloud which quickly evolves into a funnel

  25. Early Stage: Tornado funnel develops (may be transparent) and extends down from the cloud to the ground

  26. Mature Stage: Tornado funnel reaches maximum width as well as maximum intensity then begins to shrink

  27. Decay Stage: tornado may remain stationary and take on a ropelike appearance before dissipating

  28. The Tornado Outbreak of May 3, 1999 • Severe thunderstorms move into Ok, TX, Ks and spawn estimated 70 tornados, most occurred in Oklahoma • In Oklahoma 40 people killed, 675 injured • Damage: $1.2 billion • Largest tornado outbreak in Oklahoma history • 1,780 homes completely destroyed • 6,550 homes damaged

  29. Satellite image taken May 3, 1999 @ 645 CDT

  30. View from the air of a tornado path in Central OK

  31. Tornado near Amber, OK at 6:30 CDT

  32. Microburst Microbursts are downdrafts from thunderstorms consisting of a narrow column of cool air traveling at high speeds which can cause damage similar to a weak tornado over a small area

  33. Waterspouts A waterspout is a tornado that forms over a body of water, or a tornado that moves from land onto water

  34. Storm Chasers Storm chasers are a group made up of meteorologists and scientists, as well as amateur observers who voluntarily put themselves in the path of a severe thunderstorm in order to hopefully observe a tornado and obtain photographs and scientific data.

  35. Tornado Indicators • A greenish colored sky associated with the thunderstorm (caused possibly by the scattering of light by particles in the sky) • Mammatus clouds • A sudden drop in barometric pressure • Large hail of at least .75 in. diameter • Strong winds > 60 mph • Frequent and intense lightning • A rotating wall cloud or a cloud that appears to hang from the sky • A loud rumbling noise- seek shelter!

  36. Mammatus clouds Green sky

  37. Tornado Damage A 20-ton trailer blown off U.S. 30; it bounced 5 times A pick-up truck caught in the path of a tornado

  38. Early Warning Systems The National Storm Prediction Center constantly monitors the weather and radars across the U.S. They are responsible for issuing tornado watches and warnings. • Tornado Watch: a parallelogram is drawn around a 10,000 mi.^2 s area where the atmosphere seems to possess the conditions necessary for tornado development (severe thunderstorm) • Tornadowarning: a county has a thunderstorm which appears to have produced a tornado or someone has physically spotted a tornado, apparent funnel, or observed damage from what could be a tornado! SEEK SHELTER IMMEDIATELY!!

  39. Early Warning Systems

  40. Bibliography • http// • • • • • • • Church C., Burgess D., Doswell C., Davies-Jones,R., ed. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards. • American Geophysical Union Press: 2000 • Liu, Henry. Calculation Of Wind Speeds Required to Damageor Destroy Buildings. Publication within The Tornado