Julian Rotter (1916 - 1987) Background: major in chemistry at Brooklyn College met Adler and switched to psychology 1941: Ph.D. from Indiana U. Cognitive processes 1947: the first to use the term "social learning theory" cognitive approach to behaviorism
Julian Rotter 1972 • Took into account people work to attain goals both because of the consequences (rewards) & thoughts and perceptions about outcomes and its likelihood • Outcome expectancy: positive result • Reinforcement value: how much we value the expected reinforcement
Julian Rotter invokes the existence of subjective experiences criticized Skinners study of single subjects in isolation relies on rigorous, well-controlled laboratory research studies only human subjects in social interaction
Julian Rotter • deals with cognitive processes more extensively • than Bandura • both external stimuli and the reinforcement they • provide can affect behavior • cognitive factors affect the nature and extent of • that influence
Four Cognitive Principles Determine Behaviors • expectation of amount and kind of reinforcement • estimation of probability that behavior will lead to particular • reinforcement • differential values of reinforcers and assessment of their • relative worth • unique aspects of values are ascribed to reinforcers • by individuals
Behavior Potential • Likelihood that a particular behavior will occur in a specific situation • Specific expectancy-follow a behavior in a particular situation • Generalized expectancy-related to group situations • Use more generalized expectancies in new situations and use specific when situations become familiar
Rotter’s Psychological Needs arising out of Biological Needs • Recognition – status (need to achieve, seen as competent, positive social standing) • Dominance (need to control, have power & influence) • Independence (need to make decisions for oneself) • Protection-dependency (need to have others give one security and help one achieve goals) • Love & Affection (need to be liked & cared for) • Physical comfort (need to avoid pain, seek pleasure, enjoy physical security & well being
Rotter’s Psychological Situation • Behavior potential, outcome expectancy & reinforcement potential • Power of situation in behavior • What is important is individual’s unique combination of potential behaviors and value to person • Person’s expectations & values interact with situational constraints which exert influence on behavior
Predictive Formula • Behavior Potential (BP), Expectancy (E) and Reinforcement Value (RV) can be combined into a predictive formula for behavior: • BP = f(E & RV) • The likelihood of a person exhibiting a particular behavior is a function of the probability that that behavior will lead to a given outcome and the desirability of that outcome.
Psychopathology • Pathology can develop due to difficulties at any point in the predictive formula. • Behavior can be maladaptive because the individual never learned more adaptive behaviors. • Expectancies can lead to pathology when they are irrationally low. If people have low expectancies, they do not believe their behaviors will be reinforced; consequently, they put little effort into their behaviors. If they don’t succeed, they are likely to fail, thus confirming their low expectancies. This leads to a vicious cycle.
Psychopathology (cont.) • Reinforcement Value problems can also lead to psychopathology. If people set unrealistically high and unobtainable goals, they are likely to experience frequent failure, leading to a vicious cycle.
Freedom of Movement • The “mean expectancy of obtaining positive satisfactions as a result of a set of related behaviors directed toward obtaining a group of functionally related reinforcements” • The ability to achieve desired results
Minimal Goal • “The lowest goal in a continuum of potential reinforcements for some life situation or situations which will be perceived as a satisfaction”
Psychological Maladjustment • Low Freedom of Movement + High Minimal Goal = Frustration and Psychopathology • On the other hand: • High Freedom of Movement + Realistic Minimal Goal = Optimal Adjustment
Internal vs External Locus of Control • Internal locus of control: generalized expectancy that individual’s actions will lead to desired outcome-achievement oriented and high achievers • External locus of control: belief that things outside of individual determine whether a desired outcome will occur based on-less independent, depressed, stressed-hand over control to: • Powerful others • Luck or Chance
Locus of Control • Found to be important in: • Academic Performance • Career Choices, Performance and Status • Social Relationships • Physical Health • Psychological Health
Locus of Control (cont.) • Although an internal loc has generally been found to be more beneficial, extremes at either end can be a problem, and flexibility (basing our beliefs on the realistic nature of the situation) is probably the most adaptive style.