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Slavery to Colonization. Africa Unit. What does modern day slavery look like? . Boko Haram – Nigeria . http://time.com/87658/boko-haram-nigeria-kidnapped-girls / http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-27048076. Did slavery exist in Africa before the Europeans?.
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Slavery to Colonization Africa Unit
Boko Haram – Nigeria • http://time.com/87658/boko-haram-nigeria-kidnapped-girls/ • http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-27048076
Did slavery exist in Africa before the Europeans? • Yes, but not on the same scale. • Usually a different ethnic group captures members of another ethnic group. • Slaves could be integrated into society & treated more like servants
Transatlantic Slave Trade • The Europeans introduced slavery on a massive scale • Most extensive and brutalin the history of Africa • 15-20 million Africans were transported to the Americas • Millions died on the voyage to America (Middle Passage) • Between the 16th and 19th Century (1500’s -1800’s)
Reasons for the slave trade? 1. Labor shortage • Not enough workers for American plantations • Failed to enslave the Native Americans 2. Racism • Belief that Africans were biologically inferior • Later used to justify enslavement of Africans 3. Christianity • “White Man’s Burden” • Africans would be saved 4. Business • Part of a triangle of trade
Where were slaves taken from? Area stretching from present day Senegal to Angola
Cape Coast Castle West Africa
Why only the exterior? European traders and explorers only interacted with African coastal tribes Interior was difficult to navigate. Many tropical illnesses (malaria). The arrival of the Portuguese on the "Gold Coast" (Ghana) in the 1470s tapped into the beginnings of the Slave Trade
End of the Slave Trade • Abolition movements slowly gained strength for moral and ethical reasons • The Industrial Revolutionincreased the demand for raw materials and finished products, instead of slaves • 1808: Slavetrade outlawed in Britain & the U.S. • 1833: Slavery outlawed in Britain • 1865: Slavery outlawed in the U.S.
Effects of the slave trade 1. Disrupted societies in Africa • Encouraged wars between neighboring people • Resources drained - Young, healthy men and women had been taken as slaves, which left little or no help for planting or harvesting 2. Slave-trading kingdoms became dependent on European trade goods and technologies 3. Strong new states and rulers emerged • Powerful local rulers, who had traded slaves for guns, and built large regions of influence 4. Freed Africans returned to Africa • New colonies set up • Ethiopia Resisted Italian efforts to colonize • Liberia Organized by free blacks from the U.S.
Why did European Imperialism Begin? • No longer a need for slaves but many valuable resources remain within Africa! • Machines have replaced humans as process of labor.
Exploration begins! • Many groups of people from all over Europe begin to enter into Africa. • Explorers • Missionaries • Humanitarians • Doctors David Livingstone
David Livingstone • Minister • Went to Central Africa (looking for the source of the Nile River) • Disappeared for 11 years • Henry Morton Stanley found him • Henry Morton Stanley
Why would Europeans go to such great lengths to acquire land in Africa? • Belief in European superiority • Military might • Maxim gun • Economics • Cash crops • Modern medicine • Quinine • “White Man’s grave” • Malaria and Yellow Fever
Cecil Rhodes Wealthy businessman Believed in racial supremacy Wanted a British Empire in Africa Rhodes was named the chairman of De Beers at the company's founding in 1888 Founder of the southern African territory of Rhodesia
King Leopold II and the Congo • Leopold was the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State, a private project undertaken on his own behalf.
King Leopold II The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II for the exploitation of resources through forced labor of the local inhabitants.
5 – 8 Million Victims It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
Scramble for Africa European leaders begin to fight over control of the best areas of Africa (Remember Spheres of Influence in China?)
The Berlin Conference, (1884) • In November 1884, Otto von Bismarck of Germany convened a 14-nation conference. • Regulated European colonization in Africa • No Africans • Made and accepted boundaries • Sent surveyors to map routes • for roads and railroads • Except:Liberia & Ethiopia
Major Ethnic Groups and Tribal Regions in Africa in 1884 No Africans were represented at the Berlin Conference. Europeans created their own political boundaries over the existing tribal regions.
Scientific Advances Protection New Developments • Africa, huge continent, rugged terrain; travel, control difficult • 1800s, scientific advances made travel, control in Africa easier • Discovery of drug quinine helped Europeans protect selves against malaria • Automatic machine gun created strong military advantage • Development of telegraphs, railroads, steamships helped Europeans overcome problems of communication, travel European Claims in Africa In the 1880s, driven by economic, political and cultural motives, Europeans began to compete for additional territory in Africa.