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Where does the energy we use come from? PowerPoint Presentation
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Where does the energy we use come from?

Where does the energy we use come from?

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Where does the energy we use come from?

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  1. Where does the energy we use come from? • Electricity • Biomass Energy - energy from plants • Geothermal Energy • Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas • Hydro Power and Ocean Energy • Nuclear Energy • Solar Energy • Wind Energy • Transportation Energy

  2. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels 

  3. Courtesy of World Resources Institute, 10 G Street, NE (Suite 800), Washington, DC 20002

  4. Courtesy of Uranium Information Center Ltd Energy for the World - Why Uranium?

  5. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/highlights.html

  6. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/highlights.html

  7. Courtesy of Economic Energy Report by Michael Hodges

  8. PENNSYLVANIA FACTS • Pennsylvania ranks second in the nation in nuclear power generating capacity • 5 operating power plants that provide 1/3 of the electricity needs of the state • PA is a major coal producing state, selling ½ of its coal output to other states • PA is the leading petroleum refining state in the Northeast • PA’s electricity production exceeds state demands • PA is among the largest users of municipal solid waste and landfill gas for electricity generation • PA produces substantial hydroelectric power • In December 2004, PA adopted an alternative energy portfolio standard that requires electricity companies and generators to supply 18.5% of PA’s electricity from alternative energy sources by 2020.

  9. PA's energy producers

  10. Activity With your assigned group members discuss solutions to the following problem. Come to agreement as a group on a solution, and choose one member that will present your solution at the end of class. Problem: What can be done to meet the United States’ ever-growing energy demands while improving the quality of life of today’s society without sacrificing the quality of life of future generations?

  11. Law of Conservation of EnergyEnergy cannot be created nor destroyed!

  12. Law of Conservation of EnergyEnergy cannot be created nor destroyed! …or from one kind of energy into another kind. Any situation where energy is transferred from one object to another…

  13. Rube Goldberg Machine Draw your final sketch today. Label all 10 forms of energy associated with your machine. Webster's Dictionary definition of "rube goldberg”: Accomplishing by extremely complex, roundabout means what seemingly could be done simply.

  14. Rube Goldberg Machine Objective:Make a drawing of a Rube Goldberg device of your own creation which includes examples of each of the 10 basic types of energy and 10 different energy changes.   10 energies - these should be clearly labeled and numbered in blue next to where the energy occurs in the drawing. 10 different energy changes - arrows should be drawn connecting each energy in the drawing to the next in red to show how one type of energy is changing into another.

  15. Calorie • Always refers to the energy in food • A measure of how much potential energy that food possesses • 1 Calorie = 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories • Body burns calories through metabolic processes • Enzymes break carbohydrates into glucose and other sugars, fats into glycerol and fatty acids and proteins into amino acids

  16. Caloric Breakdown • 1 gram carbohydrates = 4 Calories • 1 gram protein = 4 Calories • 1 gram fat = 9 Calories

  17. Underweight <5%, Healthy 5-85%, Risk of Overweight 85-95%, Overweight >95%

  18. The Body’s Caloric Needs • 2,000 Calories is an average body’s need • Height, weight, gender, age and activity level all affect a person’s caloric needs • To calculate your body’s needs add together • basal metabolic rate • physical activity • thermic effect of food

  19. BMR--Basal Metabolic Rate • Accounts for about 60 to 70 percent of calories burned in a day • Includes the energy required to keep the heart beating, the lungs breathing, the kidneys functioning and the body temperature stabilized • Adult male: 66 + (6.3 x body weight in lbs.) + (12.9 x height in inches) - (6.8 x age in years) • Adult female: 655 + (4.3 x weight in lbs.) + (4.7 x height in inches) - (4.7 x age in years) • Ms. Wack’s BMR = 1366.4

  20. Physical Activity • Sedentary Activities Energy Costs in Cals/Hour • Lying down or sleeping - 90Sitting quietly - 84Sitting and writing, card playing, etc. - 114 • Moderate Activities (150-350 cal/hr) • Bicycling (5 mph) - 174 Light housework, cleaning, etc - 246Bicycling (6 mph) - 240Swimming (crawl, 20 yards/min) - 288Dancing (Ballroom) - 210 Gardening - 323Golf (twosome, carrying clubs) - 324 • Walking (2 mph) - 198 to 240 Walking (3 mph) - 320 Walking (4 1/2 mph) - 440

  21. Thermic Effect of Food • The amount of energy your body uses to digest the food you eat • Multiply the number of calories you eat in a day by 10% (0.10)

  22. Food Serving Size CaloriesAmerican Cheese 1 slice 70Apple 1 medium 80Apple Juice 8 fluid ounces 120Bacon 2 slices 80Bologna 1 ounce 90Caesar Salad 10 oz. w/ dressing 520Carrot, fresh 1 medium 35Cheesecake, Plain 1/4 of 19 oz cake 330Cola 8 oz 100French Fries 10 strips 160Frozen Waffles 2 waffles 220Hamburger 4 oz. Patty 445Hamburger roll 1 roll 130Macaroni and Cheese 7.5 ounces 260Milk 8 ounces 160 Pizza, Cheese 1 slice 290Potato Chips 1 ounce 150 Pretzels 1 ounce 110

  23. Use the handouts on your table to determine the # of calories you eat in an average day (estimate it). Then use the calculations from yesterday and the information below to determine whether you should be losing, gaining or maintaining weight. Write your answers on your handout from yesterday. Effects of Calorie Intake ATB • An accumulation of 3500 extra Calories is stored by your body as 1 pound of fat • Lose 1 pound of fat when you burn 3500 more calories than you eat • Burn what you eat to maintain your weight • Body burns an increased # of calories for 2 hours after exercise

  24. What happens when you don’t get the Calories you need? • Body initially responds with weight loss by breaking down fat • After a few weeks body senses starvation and your metabolism will decrease so less overall energy is needed • Body will look for other sources of fuel & will begin breaking down muscle resulting in loss of lean muscle mass (if already underweight can result in loss of tissue surrounding internal organs, including the heart). • Symptoms: Fatigue, diarrhea, inability to stay warm, irritability, weakened immune system,

  25. calories • A unit of energy • The quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of pure water 1°C

  26. Calorie • Always refers to the energy in food • A measure of how much potential energy that food possesses • 1 Calorie = 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories • Body burns calories through metabolic processes • Enzymes break carbohydrates into glucose and other sugars, fats into glycerol and fatty acids and proteins into amino acids

  27. Joule • The SI unit of energy • the symbol for Joule is J • 1 J = 0.2390 cal • 4.184 J = 1 cal

  28. Energy Conversions 1 Calorie = 1000 calories 4.184 J = 1 calorie

  29. Temperature • Measured with: • Kelvin Scale: The S.I. Scale • Based on absolute zero. • Absolute Zero: The point at which the motion of particles of matter (their kinetic energy) ceases. • K = C + 273 Fahrenheit Scale: An arbitrary scale created by Gabriel Fahrenheit. F = (C  9/5) + 32 Celsius Scale: Based on the freezing and boiling points of water. C = (F – 32)  5/9 C = K – 273

  30. Properties & Changes of Matter

  31. Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass Can be classified as solid, liquid, gas or plasma

  32. Is it matter?

  33. What is not matter? • ENERGY, HEAT, LIGHT, ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, MAGNETIC FIELDS, IDEAS, ETC. Properties of Matter • Describe the characteristics and behavior of matter, including the changes that matter undergoes

  34. Observing Matter • Macroscopic Observations: Observations made with the 5 senses • Microscopic Observations: Observations made with a microscope • Submicroscopic Observations: Observations of substances so small they cannot even be seen with a microscope Macroscopic Microscopic Submicroscopic

  35. Quantitative Observation: An observation that involves a numerical value. • Qualitative Observation: Describes the properties of a substance

  36. Physical Properties quantitative What are the physical properties represented in the image above? characteristics qualitative

  37. Mass • Units: grams or kilograms • Measured with: Triple Beam Balance

  38. VOLUME • SI Unit: cm3 or m3 • Measured with: a meterstick or a metric ruler • Common Unit: mL or L • Measured with: a graduated cylinder If the same amount of liquid is found in both of the above containers—which has more volume?

  39. States of Matter • Depends on: • Solid: • Liquid: • Gas:

  40. PLASMA The most common form of matter Free electrons and ions of an element. Energy is needed to strip atoms of their electrons. Plasmas can be steered and controlled by magnetic and electric fields.

  41. PLASMA TV’S • Xenon and Neon in each cell • Intersecting electrodes charged causing electric current through the gas in that cell • Electric current = rapidly flowing charged particles causing the release of UV photons • Photons interact with the phosphor coating giving off colored light Because each cell is lit individually, the image is bright and looks good from almost any angle.

  42. Chemical Properties

  43. Chemical Reaction: A Chemical Change • After a chemical reaction: The original substance no longer has the same identity • Chemical reactions can be used to:

  44. Is it a chemical reaction?

  45. Law of Conservation of Matter • Matter cannot be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. • Developed by: Antoine Lavoisier • Mathematically: • Mass of the reactants = Mass of the products • (starting materials) (ending materials)

  46. PURE SUBSTANCE • Matter with the same fixed composition and properties • First Type of Pure Substance • Element • The Periodic Table: A chart that lists the chemical name and chemical symbol for each element • Chemical Symbol: A shorthand abbreviation for the name of an element • You can tell a substance is an element because it is on the periodic table -Can you separate an element? No Aluminum = ___ Gold = ____ Tin = ____

  47. PURE SUBSTANCE • Matter with the same fixed composition and properties • Second Type of Pure Substance • Compound • Chemical Formula: A combination of chemical symbols that show what elements make up a compound and the number of atoms of each element • Subscript: A number written to the lower right of an element symbol to indicate the number of atoms of that • How do you know if a substance is a compound? If it is 1 thing only—and it is not on the periodic table. • Can you separate a compound? Yes—by chemically decomposing it. NaH2CO3 Mg(OH)2

  48. Decomposing a Compound Electrolysis • “To tear apart with electricity” • The process in which electrical energy causes a non-spontaneous chemical reaction to occur • May break a compound apart into its elements • Electrolysis of PbBr2 & ZnCl2 • Electrolysis of Water