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Review from yesterday

Review from yesterday

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Review from yesterday

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  1. Review from yesterday • What are the three different types of memory? • How many items can short term memory hold? • How can short term memory hold more than seven items?

  2. Can you remember the following? J FKFB INAS AOP PI RSC IA JFK FBI NASA OPP IRS CIA .

  3. Thinking & Knowledge HSP3M

  4. Using knowledge • We acquire knowledge through • Sensation • Perception • Learning • We use this knowledge through thinking • Developing concepts • Reasoning • Problem solving • Decision making

  5. Developing Concepts • A concept is a category of objects, ideas, or events • Used to group similar items together • Ex: babies learn that milk and juice come in a glass, but food comes on a plate • Without concepts, each item would be unique • Ex: the concept of “apple” means you can infer that the apple you’re about to eat will taste good

  6. Concepts • Concepts are arranged in a hierarchy • Ex: • “bicycle”, “boat”, “automobile” are each concepts on their own • They can also be grouped together under the concept of “transportation”

  7. Reasoning • Using information to draw conclusions • 3 types: • Deductive Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning • Dialectical Reasoning

  8. Deductive Reasoning • Applying a general principle to a specific situation • Premise: All humans need air to live • Premise: I am a human • Conclusion: I need air to live

  9. Inductive Reasoning • Applying something specific to a general situation • Premise: I liked Kings of Leon’s last record • Premise: This new record is from Kings of Leon • Conclusion: I will like this new record

  10. Dialectical Reasoning • Thesis + Antithesis = Synthesis • Basically, comparing two opposite ideas and drawing your own conclusion, which is somewhere in between • When do we use this type of reasoning

  11. Reasoning • Which type is it? • “Since all humans live on Earth, and I am a human, I must live on Earth”

  12. Reasoning • Which type is it? • “Most people who use the SQ3R method (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Respond) improve their reading comprehension. I will try the SQ3R method. I will probably do better on the upcoming test”

  13. Reasoning • Which type is it? • “I know that you believe in learning through observation. Personally, I think that repeating ideas improves learning. But I am coming to see the value of your argument – perhaps learning through observation is strengthened through repetition”

  14. Reasoning • Which type is it? • “Housecats are members of the feline group. This animal in my house is a cat. Therefore it is a feline.”

  15. Problem Solving • The ability to deal with new situations • Solving a math problem • Figuring out how to drive somewhere you haven’t been to before • Define the problem • Develop a strategy to solve it • Carry out the strategy • Determine if the strategy is working

  16. Problem Solving • Examples of strategies: • Trial and error • Try different approaches until you find one that works • Rule of thumb • Use a general rule based on experience/knowledge • Insight • A new idea or sudden understanding • Hypothesis Testing • Test a hypothesis and measure its success

  17. Problem Solving • Which problem solving strategy would be best for: • Organizing a term paper • Solving a math problem • Making your money last until the end of the week • Choosing the best route to your destination

  18. Decision Making • Happens when we have a choice: • Determine alternatives • Evaluate alternative • Make a decision • Act

  19. Decision Making • Your iPod was stolen from your locker. You find out that the person who stole it is the star goalie on the school’s hockey team. The team has dominated NCSSAA play this year and has a real chance of winning OFSAA. If you report the theft, the goalie will be suspended from the team. • Use the decision-making process to arrive at a decision

  20. Homework • Page 62 # 4 • Page 66 # 1-3, #7